VITAMIN C IS THE NEW GREAT HOPE FOR SLUGABEDS AND LAYABOUTS! VOL.1 NO. 70


Endo dysfunction Click to enlarge
Endo dysfunction Click to enlarge

Recent studies show that greater than 50% of overweight and obese adults do not exercise. This fact contributes to elevated endothelin (ET)-1[1], a protein, causing vasomotor dysfunction[2] [3]vasoconstriction, and increased vascular risk[4]. Regular aerobic exercise is a lifestyle strategy that reduces ET-1 mediated[5] vasoconstrictor [6] tone.

Caitlin Dow, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Integrative Vascular Biology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Research
Caitlin Dow, Ph.D.
Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Integrative Vascular Biology Laboratory
Boulder, Colorado Research

Since regular aerobic exercise is not a part of the sedentary lifestyle followed by most adults, researchers led by Caitlin Dow Ph.D., postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Colorado, Boulder, examined whether or not vitamin C is as beneficial to vascular health as aerobic exercise in lowering ET-1 system activity in overweight and obese adults. It is already known that vitamin C positively influences endothelial function.

Chair SleepingThe study included 35 sedentary, overweight, and obese adults. Of these, 20 individuals were selected to complete three months of a vitamin C (500 mg/day, timed-release) regimen; the other 15 individuals completed aerobic (walking) exercise training. Forearm blood flow measurements were taken before and after the two interventions. The researchers found vitamin C is as effective as walking in reducing ET-1 related arterial vessel constriction. Therefore, a vitamin C regimen is effective as a lifestyle strategy for reducing ET-1 mediated vasoconstriction

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

 

Vitamin C: The Exercise Replacement? (2015, September 2). Retrieved September 9, 2015, from Newswise: http://www.newswise.com/articles/vitamin-c-the-exercise-replacement

 


 

[1] The endothelium regulates local vascular tone and integrity through the coordinated release of vasoactive molecules. Secretion of endothelin-1 (ET-1) from the endothelium signals vasoconstriction and influences local cellular growth and survival. ET-1 has been implicated in the development and progression of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and hypertension.

[2] affecting diameter of blood vessels causing or influencing changes in the diameter of blood vessels in an inappropriate way

[3] Myocardial ischemia is known to be precipitated by a mismatch between oxygen demand and supply secondary to epicardial coronary artery stenosis (i.e. constriction.) The tendency for developing myocardial ischemia is greater in those with more severe obstructive epicardial CAD (coronary artery disease) and with microvascular dysfunction manifested as abnormal vasodilatory and vasoconstrictor function of the peripheral circulation.

[4] Atherosclerosis (also known as arteriosclerotic vascular disease or ASVD) is a specific form of arteriosclerosis in which an artery wall thickens as a result of invasion and accumulation of white blood cells (WBCs)(foam cell) and proliferation of intimal smooth muscle cell creating a fibro-fatty plaque.

[5] to act as a medium that transfers something from one place to another in the body

[6] causing narrowing of the blood vessels

 

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

 

 

 

LOW ENERGY SWEETENERS VS. REGULAR SUGAR AND YOUR HUNGER, CONFLICTING EVIDENCE! VOL. 1 NO. 69


The consumption of low-energy sweeteners (LES) substituting for regular sugar, in children and adults, has been found to reduce caloric intake and body weight. It may possibly do the same when comparing low energy sweetener to water possibly because of taste. This according to a review led by researchers at the University of Bristol published in the International Journal of Obesity, November 2015.

For the first time, a single meta-review evaluates the real effect of LES, such as saccharine (e.g. Sweet And Low®), aspartame (e.g. Equal®), sucralose (e.g. Splenda®), and Stevia (e.g. Truvia®), on energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW) over the short and long term. A considerable body of evidence correlates the consumption of LES in place of sugar reduces relative energy intake and body weight.

Professor Peter Rogers Biological Psychology
Professor Peter Rogers
Biological Psychology

Lead author Professor Peter Rogers from the University of Bristol said: “We believe that we should shift the question from whether LES are ‘good’ or ‘bad,’ and rather focus on how they should be best used in practice to help in the achievement of specific public health goals, such as the reduction of intakes of free sugars and energy.” (Rogers, 2015)

The researchers carried out systematic reviews of pertinent studies in non-primates and humans consuming LES in a non-restricted diet.
In total, 12 human prospective cohort studies, 228 comparisons in human intervention studies (short and long-term), and 90 animal studies were examined.

“Managing energy balance (that is, energy intake vs. energy expenditure) well results in a steady body weight. On the contrary, eating an excessive amount of food causes an increase in body weight as this extra energy is stored in the body as adipose tissue (fat). Low energy sweeteners were developed for consumers looking for ways to reduce their sugar and energy intake.” (Evidence shows low-energy sweeteners help reduce energy intake and body weight, 2015)

The comparison between LES drinks and water is of interest because it shows that low energy sugar does not increase hunger. The evidence found in this study purports that LES drinks reduced weight more than water. A cogent reason for this may be that changing from regular sugar drinks to those with low energy sugar may be easier and a more palatable dietary change than switching to water.

This study seems to contradict another study by Monica Dus a researcher at the University of Michigan as reviewed in an earlier edition of The Fat Bastard Gazette,
FRUIT FLY NEURONS AND HUMAN NEURONS CAN TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REAL SUGAR AND ARTIFICIAL SWEETENER CAUSING A HUNGER RESPONSE! VOL. 1 NO. 40
.

Monica Dus
Monica Dus, Ph.D., assistant professor in the U-M Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology

“From an evolutionary perspective, sweet taste means sugar (traditionally from fruit or high concentrate carbohydrates) and a subsequent big energy boost. Fruit flies can’t call out for pizza–their brains expect calories if they eat something sweet, and that’s why they chose the regular sugar, Dus says.” (diet sweeteners could exist in humans, 2015)

“If our brains work the same way, this helps explains why diet foods don’t satiate or satisfy us, and we gain weight while dieting. It’s analogous to a person eating that entire sleeve of low-calorie cookies and the body telling her she’s still hungry. She keeps snacking until she eats something with nutritional value that meets her energy needs.” (Bailey, 2015)

This male fruit fly (Zaprionus vittiger) devoid of abdominal pigments illustrates the morphological diversity of abdominal pigmentation in Drosophilidae. Nicolas Gompel, postdoctoral fellow in molecular biology, researched the genes that drive differences in pigmentation in fruit flies (genus Drosophila), using this fly from a species stock center and other flies caught at his University Housing apartment and at the University Housing community garden compost heap. ©UW-Madison University Communications 608/262-0067 Photo by: Nicolas Gompel Date: 6/03 File#: Scan provided, E880 digital camera frame 6810
This male fruit fly (Zaprionus vittiger) devoid of abdominal pigments.

“In two previous studies, Dus and her colleagues found that flies that couldn’t taste preferred real sugar to a zero-calorie sweetener, which underscores the theory of energy preference. They also characterized a neural circuit, dubbed Cupcake+, which functions as a behavioral on/off switch for eating. Turning off the Cupcake neurons makes the fruit flies “feel” hungry, Dus says.” (Bailey, 2015)

Further information on low energy sugar study (LES)

What makes this new or different?

For the first time, the totality of evidence on the question of low-energy sweeteners’ effects on energy intake and body weight has been considered in a systematic review, including both human and animal research.

What is a ‘systematic’ review and why is that important?

In a systematic review, researchers identify all relevant scientific papers that address a question. It is a way to overcome possible bias (for example, from selecting or ignoring certain evidence), and ensure the totality of relevant evidence is considered. A systematic review is also transparent and open to direct replication by other experts.

Are ‘low energy’ sweeteners the same as ‘artificial’ sweeteners?

Some low-energy sweeteners are derived from natural sources, but the majorities are manufactured, so they are often called ‘artificial’ sweeteners.

Why do some people say that low-energy sweeteners might cause weight gain?

The hypothesis that low-energy sweeteners might cause weight gain has come from a subset of animal and observational studies. However, the current paper shows that this hypothesis is not supported by the majority of studies with animals, nor by any of the many controlled studies with humans consuming low energy sweeteners for weeks or years.

What about the safety of low-energy sweeteners?

This paper did not evaluate safety. The low-energy sweeteners used in commercial foods and beverages have all undergone safety evaluations needed to achieve regulatory approval for use by the general public.

Why do you say that low-energy sweeteners are beneficial, “possibly even also when compared to water”?

This comes from intervention studies showing that people tended to lose more weight when they consumed low-energy sweetened (‘diet’) drinks rather than water.

Does this mean using low-energy sweeteners will cause weight loss?

No. Weight change is dependent on the total diet and activity pattern, not a single component of foods and beverages. However, using low-energy sweeteners is a helpful alternative to caloric sweeteners, to reduce the risk of weight gain or as part of weight loss.

What was the role of the food industry in this paper?

Of the 11 authors, two are research scientists in the food industry, eight are independent academics, including four full professors recognized as international authorities in the areas of eating behaviour and nutritional epidemiology. (Evidence shows low-energy sweeteners help reduce energy intake and body weight, 2015)

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.



 

Bailey, L. (2015, June 11). MICHIGAN NEWS University of Michigan. Retrieved November 13, 2015, from Regular soda, please: Hormone that differentiates sugar, diet sweeteners could exist in humans: http://ns.umich.edu/new/multimedia/videos/22948-regular-soda-please-hormone-that-differentiates-sugar-diet-sweeteners-could-exist-in-humans

Evidence shows low-energy sweeteners help reduce energy intake and body weight. (2015, November 10). Retrieved November 13, 2015, from University of Bristol: http://www.bris.ac.uk/news/2015/november/low-energy-sweeteners-and-weight.html

Rogers, P. e. (2015, November 10). Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies, Online publication. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2015.177

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

THE IMPORTANCE OF SOLUBLE FIBER IN YOUR DIET Vol. 1 No. 68


shortlit2Most investigators into the causes of obesity believe that eating too much high fat, high-calorie food is the primary cause of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including diabetes. The excess calories consumed directly causes fat accumulation; scientists believe that a low-grade inflammation due to an altered gut microbiome (A microbial biome, such as the community of microbes within the human gut.) may also be involved. A new study published in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology finds in mice lacking soluble fiber encourages inflammation in the intestines and poor gut health, inducing weight gain. On the other hand, introducing soluble fiber into the diet can restore gut health.

“The gut microbiota is a community of bacteria and other microorganisms that live in the intestines. Microbiota also exists elsewhere on the body, including the skin and mouth. The gut microbiota has an important role in maintaining intestinal health and functions, including helping the body digest food, producing vitamins and fighting foreign microorganisms. Changes to the gut microbiota have been linked to the development of gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity.” (Brooks, 2015)

Soluble vs. insoluble fiberThere are two different types of fiber — soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases.

  • Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in oat bran, barley, nuts, seeds, beans, lentils, peas, and some fruits and vegetables. It is also found in psyllium, a common fiber supplement. Some types of soluble fiber may help lower risk of heart disease.
  • Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as wheat bran, vegetables, and whole grains. It adds bulk to the stool and appears to help food pass more quickly through the stomach and intestines. (Soluble vs. insoluble fiber, 2014)

A research team at Georgia State University looked at the effects of diets varying in amounts of soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, and fat on the structure of the intestines, as well as fat accretion for weight gain in mice. Crucial observations from this study are:

  • Mice on a diet lacking soluble fiber gained weight and had more fat compared with mice on a diet that included soluble fiber. The intestines of mice on the soluble fiber-deficient diet were also shorter and had thinner walls. These structural changes were observed as soon as two days after starting the diet.
  • Introducing soluble fiber into the diet restored the gut structure. Supplementing with soluble fiber inulin (a polysaccharide, (C 6 H 10 O 5) n, obtained from the roots of certain plants, especially elecampane, dahlia, and Jerusalem artichoke, that undergoes hydrolysis to the dextrorotatory [Turning or rotating the plane of polarization of light to the right or clockwise,as for solutions or isomers, usually designated as d- in chemical names.] form of fructose: used chiefly as an ingredient in diabetic bread, in processed foods to increase their fiber content, and as a reagent in diagnosing kidney functionAlso called alant starch.)

    restored the intestinal structure in mice on the soluble fiber-deficient diet. Mice that received cellulose, an insoluble fiber, however, did not show improvements. Moreover, in mice fed a high-fat diet, switching the type of fiber from insoluble to soluble protected the mice from the fat accumulation and intestinal wasting that occurs with excess fat consumption. The data suggest a difference in health benefits between soluble and insoluble dietary fibers, the researchers stated.

  • Improvements in gut structure with soluble fiber were due to changes in the gut microbiota and the gut microbiota’s production of molecules called short-chain fatty acids, which are used as fuel by intestinal cells and have anti-inflammatory properties. Mice consuming a soluble fiber-deficient diet had lower levels of short chain fatty acids and introducing soluble fiber into their diet boosted their levels. Supplementing the soluble fiber-deficient diet with short chain fatty acids had similar effects as inulin supplementation, although not to the same extent. Inulin supplementation increased the size of the intestines in normal mice but not in mice with no gut microbiota, supporting that the gut microbiota is involved in the intestinal health effects of soluble fiber. According to the researchers, the data support that soluble fiber promotes gut health by encouraging the gut microbiota to produce short chain fatty acids.

“If our observations were to prove applicable to humans, it would suggest that encouraging consumption of foods with high soluble fiber content may be a means to combat the epidemic of metabolic disease. Moreover, the addition of inulin and perhaps other soluble fibers to processed foods, including calorically rich obesogenic foods, may be a means to ameliorate their detrimental effects,” the researchers stated. (Brooks, 2015)

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

Brooks, S. (2015, October 30). Diet Lacking Soluble Fiber Promotes Weight Gain, Mouse Study Suggests. Retrieved November 9, 2015, from The American Physiological Society Press Release: http://www.the-aps.org/mm/hp/Audiences/Public-Press/2015/59.html

Soluble vs. insoluble fiber. (2014, August 11). Retrieved November 9, 2015, from MedlinePlus: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002136.htm

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

fast food and fatty liver disease, neck circumference equals fatty liver Vol. 1 No. 67


 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.