Category Archives: CHOLESTEROL

HEY CHUBBY, IT’S NOT JUST THE DIET BUT WHERE YOU EAT! VOL.1 NO. 51


Dear fellow travelers another pronunciamento  has come down from on high. It is been determined that

Ruopeng An - professor of kinesiology and community health
Ruopeng An – professor of kinesiology and community health

whether one eats at a fast food chain in and out or a full-service restaurant one ingests approximately 200 more calories a day than staying at home for meals. We also consume more fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium than those of us who for prepare our meals at home.

“These are the findings of University of Illinois kinesiology and community health professor Ruopeng  An, who analyzed eight years of nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which is conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. Ruopeng An looked at 2003-10 data collected from 18,098 adults living in the U.S.” 2

where-you-eat-matters“His analysis, reported in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, revealed that eating at a restaurant is comparable to – or in some cases less healthful than – eating at a fast-food outlet.” 2 diners at restaurants tend to take in more healthful nutrients -“ including certain vitamins, potassium and omega-3 fatty acids – than those who eat at home or at a fast-food outlet,” 3 the restaurant diners also ingest more sodium and cholesterol; two substances that we usually eat in excess, even at home.

eataly-birreria“People who ate at full-service restaurants consumed significantly more cholesterol per day than people who ate at home,” Ruopeng An said. “This extra intake of cholesterol, about 58 milligrams per day, accounts for 20 percent of the recommended upper bound of total cholesterol intake of 300 milligrams per day.”

An’s study also pointed out that diners and fast food chains also took an extra cholesterol, approximately 10 mg more than those who ate at home.

del-friscos-grille-continues-texas-expansion“Fast food and restaurant diners consumed about 10 g/0.35 oz. more total fat, and 3.49 g/ .12 oz. and 2.46 g/.09 oz., respectively, more saturated fat than those who dined at home.” 2

Ruopeng An said, “The American Heart Association recommends limiting the amount of saturated fats one eats to less than 5 to 6 percent of one’s total daily calories. That means that if one needs about 2,000 calories a day, less than 120 calories, or 13 grams, should come from saturated fats.”

download (13)“Eating at a fast-food outlet adds about 300 milligrams of sodium to one’s daily intake, and restaurant dining boosts sodium intake by 412 milligrams per day, on average,” Ruopeng An said. The daily recommendations for sodium intake are approximately 1500 and 2300 mg per day. The study found that we consume more than 3100 mg of sodium at home.

“The additional sodium is even more worrisome because the average daily sodium intake among Americans is already so far above the recommended upper limit, posing a significant public health concern, such as hypertension and heart disease,” he said.

Ruopeng An also found a remarkable difference in the effects of dining out on different races, cultures, and groups.

56634834“African-Americans who ate at fast-food and full-service restaurants took in more total fat, saturated fat, sodium and sugar than their Caucasian and Hispanic counterparts who dined out. The effect of fast-food restaurant consumption on daily total energy intake appeared larger among people with lower educational attainment,” (i. e. The Great Booboisie), Ruopeng An said. “And people in the middle-income range had the highest daily intake of total energy, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium when they dined at full-service restaurants.”

Qwanise Johnson serves free grand slam breakfast promotions at a Denny's in northeast Washington, Tuesday, Feb. 3, 2009. (AP Photo/Jacquelyn Martin)
Qwanise Johnson serves free grand slam breakfast promotions at a Denny’s in northeast Washington, Tuesday, Feb. 3, 2009. (AP Photo/Jacquelyn Martin)

Ruopeng An found the very, very chubby obese devoured more calories at fast-food restaurants, and took in more total energy, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium when having a delightful repast at full-service restaurants than their normal weight and marginally chubby overweight cousins.

“These findings reveal that eating at a full-service restaurant is not necessarily healthier than eating at a fast-food outlet,” Ruopeng An said. “In fact, you may be at higher risk of overeating in a full-service restaurant than when eating fast-food. My advice to those hoping to consume a healthy diet and not overeat is that it is healthier to prepare your own foods and to avoid eating outside the home whenever possible.”


  1. An, R. (2015, July 1). Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption and daily energy and nutrient intakes in US adults. Retrieved from EJCN: http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ejcn2015104a.html
  2. Diana Yates, L. S. (2015, July 1). Study: Restaurant meals can be as bad for your waistline as fast food is. Retrieved July 2, 2015, from NEWS BUREAU | ILLINOIS: http://news.illinois.edu/news/15/0701foodout_ruopengan.html
  3. Study: Restaurant meals can be as bad for your waistline as fast food is. (2015, July 2). Retrieved July 2, 2015, from MNT: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/296211.php?tw
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

“THE FAT BASTARD GAZETTE” HEART, PARKINSONS VS. LOW CHOLESTEROL, ROLE OF CHOLESTEROL VOL. 1 NO. 17


Once again, fellow travelers it is time to reach out to the poor benighted Booboisie novitiates that remain

Ichebad  Chetem, Company Attorney
Ichebad Chetem, Company Attorney

ignorant of healthful living. In the spirit of bonhomie, we present in this issue’s first article a very simple, straightforward five-point question and answer guide to better health. A fifth grade student could understand the import of this simple guide. Enough said!

Your captain remains steadfast in the use of statins to combat high serum cholesterol and advocates the use of triglyceride lowering drugs against insidiously high triglyceride levels (fatty acids)

The next disparate article presents somewhat of a conundrum in reference to statins. Does one take statins and risk all manner of untoward effects of the drug or risk atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. The Captain once again opts for the use of statins, to use a couple of lines from “The Shining,” Lloyd: What will you be drinking, sir? Jack Torrance: Hair of the dog that bit me, Lloyd. Parkinsons Disease affects only 1 to 2% of the population and of that population; many live in rural areas, drink well water, and are exposed over a period to herbicides.

Lastly, read a brief but informative article on the role cholesterol plays in nerve and brain function. We included this article to dispel confusion as to the importance of having a certain amount of cholesterol for daily cellular function, without it our nervous system would short circuit.

Five Heart Healthy Questions To Ask Yourself

by SILVIA FERNANDEZ

February 22, 2015

Question number one: Do I Eat Healthy? Many people claim to eat healthy but either do not or simply do not know what it means. The American Heart Association describes a healthy diet as one which includes 4.5 servings of fruits and vegetables every day, with a 1,500 mg limit on sodium.

heart2a1t
Heart with bypass graft

Question number two: Am I At A Healthy Weight? This is important because even heavier people can still be at a healthy weight. It really depends, actually on your diet as well as your fitness level.
Which leads us to…

Question number three: How much Do I Exercise? Answering this question can be somewhat complicated because recent studies have just shown that even mild exercise can provide great benefit for many people. However, if you are at an unhealthy weight or have particular health conditions which would benefit from a more regimented exercise schedule, it may be wise to consider it.

Question number four: How is My blood Pressure? High blood pressure is, of course, very bad for your heart. Diet can help, but so can the reduction of stress in your life, so be sure to weigh several factors.

Question number five: How is My Cholesterol? While a recent study has indicated that cholesterol regulations of the past no longer apply, those who wish to keep their heart in top shape might benefit from, at least, minimally restricting cholesterol.

Should Statins Remain A Parkinsons Treatment

by SILVIA FERNANDEZ

February 23, 2015

Statins have lately been the go to drug for many conditions, but a new study has investigated them more deeply to weigh the benefits and side effects.

And this investigation has realized a somewhat surprising result.

“The adverse effects suffered by people taking statins are more common than reported in the media and at medical conferences,” explains Diamond and Ravnskov.

The study go on to say, “Increased rates of cancer, cataracts, diabetes, cognitive impairments, and musculoskeletal disorders more than offset the modest cardiovascular benefits of statin treatment.”

Study author Xuemi Huang, comments, “We confirmed our previous finding that high total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were associated with a lower risk of PD (Parkinson’s disease).” The Penn State College of Medicine professor of neurology at Penn State College of Medicine continues, “Moreover, statin use over the course of the study did not protect against PD, and in fact appeared to increase PD risk in the long term.”
Statins
Huang goes on to say, “Statins have been proven to be effective in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and stroke. Although some have proposed that statins might be a ‘cure-all’ drug, this might be a case where what’s good for the heart isn’t good for the brain.”

He also tries to explain the results of the study in regards to Parkinson’s Disease: “One possibility is that statin use can be a marker of people who have high cholesterol, which itself may be associated with lower PD risk. This could explain why some studies have found an association between use of these medications and low incidence of PD. Most importantly, this purported benefit may not be seen over time.”

Of course this just warrants more research; and Huang cautions physicians to learn more about statins. “This is evidence that personalized medicine is better than a one-size-fits-all approach,” he says.


Myelin Sheath

A typical nerve cell is composed of a cell body, a narrow tubular portion called an axon that conducts an electrical signal away from the cell body and a branching axon terminal that links to receiving nerve cell bodies. Some nerve cell axons, such as those running from your spinal cord to your extremities, may be a meter or more in length. Electrical impulses through these long nerve fibers, as well as through the white matter in your brain, must be insulated. Myelin is a layered material composed of phospholipid, cholesterol and protein that winds around nerve cell axons. Myelin insulates nerve impulses from neighboring nerve fibers, and it increases the speed of impulses through nerve axons.

Myelin Production

Myelin is produced in your nerve tissues by helper cells called glial cells, which are located adjacent to the nerve cells. Glial cells secrete myelin as an extension of their own cell membranes, and the secreted myelin spirals around your nerve cell axons to form segments of the myelin sheath. Many glial cells lined up along an axon are required to fully myelinate and insulate a long nerve cell. The composition of myelin is approximately 30 percent protein, 27 percent cholesterol and 43 percent phospholipid. Myelin production is absolutely dependent on cholesterol synthesis in the glial cells.

Brain Cholesterol

The weight of your brain is only a few percent of your body weight, but it contains about 25 percent of all of the cholesterol in your body. The majority of the cholesterol in your brain is present in myelin sheaths. Cholesterol circulating in your blood with lipoproteins cannot get past the blood-brain barrier, which prevents large molecules from entering your brain. Therefore, all of the cholesterol present in nerve tissue must be produced locally in nerve tissue. Your brain produces more cholesterol than it needs, and extra cholesterol is transported out of nerve tissue after conversion to a compound called 24-hydroxycholesterol. Many degenerative diseases in the brain, including Alzheimer’s disease, are linked with imbalances of brain cholesterol.

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot  Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

“THE FAT BASTARD GAZETTE” MORE PANDERING, PALEO DIET, CHOLESTEROL AND NEW DIETARY GUIDELINES VOL. 1 NO. 15


R. Crumb
R. Crumb

More bumptious poppycock fellow travelers from the meat and soda lobby groups decrying the new nutrition guidelines recently issued by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. These lobby groups are on a fool’s errand.  Even a half informed fellow traveler would look askance at these lobby groups feeble retorts.   But then again these lobby groups are pandering to the large population of gullible Booboisie helter-skelter.

Paleo diet is a step beyond the food guidelines. The Paleo diet is certainly nothing new to informed travelers curious though how the Paleo diet is akin to the new Atkins diet.  So once again, we confront the latest trend in diets aimed at health and the shedding of pounds. We can go round and round on the merry go round of diets but the Captain and others believe what counts in the final analysis are protein, calories, and EXERCISE. The Captain knows how futile an endeavor it is to try diet alone. One must literally starve oneself to shed pounds without exercise. It takes 90 minutes of moderately strenuous treadmill exercise to lose 1,335 calories. Therefore, this is just an example of how much exercise you need to lose any substantial amount of calories and which translates into pounds.

Finally, there is an excellent article from CNN on the dietary guidelines change and cholesterol. The Captain has been on statins and triglyceride medication for many years and would be loath to go off these medications.  As the cross section below shows,

this is what high cholesterol and triglycerides can do to the arterial wall forming plaque. The Captain had an angiogram in his 30’s and was clear but what now 30 years later. Captain will play it safe and stay on the medications just in case or until the next angiogram.

Meat and soda industries prepare to fight new US dietary guidelines

Lobbyists for the US meat and soda industries are rallying the troops after a government committee on healthy eating has recommended that Americans consume less red meat and sugary drinks, and more fruit and vegetables. The 571-page report published by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) was dismissed as “flawed” and “nonsensical” by representatives of the meat industry. Soda makers joined in the criticism, saying the panel of experts had gone “beyond its scope” and that high intensity sweeteners criticized by the panel “can be an effective tool in weight loss.”

Although the report has no legal powers, it’s very likely that the government will implement its advice. This will inform new public health campaigns and set federal policy for things like school lunches, which is a program worth $16 billion annually. The report also recommends for the first time ever that Americans consider the sustainability of their food. As with the advice for healthy eating, this means simply eating less meat and more vegetables and plants.

THE ADVICE IS STRAIGHTFORWARD AND FAMILIAR

Even those of us that love a burger and Coke will recognize the DGAC’s advice is hardly radical. “A healthy dietary pattern is higher in vegetables, whole grains, low- or non-fat dairy, seafood, legumes, and nuts,” says the report, “[It’s] moderate in alcohol (among adults); lower in red and processed meats; and low in sugar-sweetened foods and drinks and refined grains.” Surprisingly, however, the report did repeal decades-old advice that individuals limit their intake of cholesterol, noting that there was no clear link between foods high in the nutrient (e.g. eggs and seafood) and health problems.

COFFEE, THANKFULLY, GETS A THUMBS-UP

Thankfully, for the caffeine-addicted among us, the report gives the thumbs-up to moderate coffee consumption, noting that drinking three to five cups of coffee a day “is not associated with increased long-term health risks.” However, the panel added that Americans tended to underestimate their coffee consumption and that three to five cups a day was equal to only two or three servings from Starbucks.

They also highlighted the dangers of energy drinks with high caffeine content, saying that children and adolescents should drink them sparingly, or better still, not at all. Adults should also avoid consuming energy drinks and alcohol together — whether “mixed together or consumed at the same sitting.” This means popular drinks like Red Bull and vodka should be off the cards for those trying to stay healthy. The panel also mooted the idea of a tax on sugary drinks and foods.

As well as recommending that Americans consider the sustainability of their diet, the report highlights the meat industry as a particular environmental concern. “Current evidence shows that the average U.S. diet has a larger environmental impact in terms of increased greenhouse gas emissions, land use, water use and energy use,” said the report. “This is because the current U.S. population intake of animal-based foods is higher and plant-based foods are lower.”

BEEF USES 28 TIMES MORE LAND THAN PORK OR POULTRY

The meat industry described the panel’s “foray into the murky waters of sustainability” as “well beyond its scope and expertise,” and pointed out that although the carbon footprint of meat was higher than plants, the two do not deliver an equal amount of nutrients. This is true, of course, but the ratio of environmental impact to nutritional output is not something that can be easily measured. Even among livestock there is much variation. Beef, for example, needs 28 times more land and 11 times more irrigation water than pork and poultry.

Although the government is free to ignore the DGAC’s advice, the chances are it won’t, said former member Marion Nestle, a professor of nutrition at New York University. Nestle describes the 2015 report as a “dramatic departure” for the panel, which has previously recommended eating meat as a way to reduce saturated fat intake. “The one thing the Dietary Guidelines have never been allowed to do is say clearly and explicitly to eat less of anything,” Nestle told Politico. “This committee is not burying anything, or obfuscating …They’re just telling it like it is.”

How to convert your diet to Paleo and lose weight

Shopping the Paleo way with fitness expert Nate Furlong. Susan Selasky/Detroit Free Press

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Eat like a caveman. That’s the thrust of the trendy Paleo style of eating.

At its core, the Paleo diet is devoid of all processed foods, refined sugars and dairy. In theory, it is supposed to mirror the way Stone Age hunter-gathers ate. The diet has been around for a while, but has gained popularity over the last several years. And it doesn’t seem to be headed for extinction anytime soon.

Nate Furlong of New Hudson has been following a Paleo diet for three years. Furlong, 29, a clinical exercise physiologist, discovered the Paleo way of eating while working in a cardiologist office. (He’s also a personal trainer and Paleo nutrition expert, owns Well Fit Life in Novi and co-owner of Train Better Personal Trainers.)

“I was … helping clients with some nutrition recommendations according to normal USDA standards: low fat, kind of low protein and higher in carbohydrates,” Furlong said. “I saw them lose some weight, but not get off meds, so I started searching other options and Paleo was talked about favorably.”

The Paleo diet promotes eating lean meats and fish along with lots of fruits and non-starchy vegetables, nuts and seeds. What’s out? Most grains and legumes.

We caught up with Furlong recently at the Better Health Store in Novi, where he often conducts Paleo diet grocery tours as well as seminars. Here’s a bit of what he had to say about eating and shopping the Paleo way:

QUESTION: What made you convert to the Paleo way of eating?

ANSWER: What struck me was that by reducing some processed food, people had better cholesterol levels — ultimately, it helped people more. I’ve seen some clients get off meds. And that’s what gave me a kick.

Q: What are the benefits of Paleo?

A: Potential weight loss and increased cognitive function … along with problem solving. There’s also increased energy level and potential rebalancing of blood cholesterol — HDLs, LDLs and triglycerides.

Q: Is it easy to follow? How do you advise people to start?

A: It usually takes people a couple of tries. You start by cutting out things like pop and things that have added sugar and cutting back on the some of the gluten, dairy until you … minimize it. At the same time, I try to get them to eat more protein with each meal.

Q: What does a Paleo diet look in pyramid form?

A: Meat is on bottom along with veggies. The next level is non-starchy vegetables and fruits. … The next rung is seeds and nuts. But the balancer here, in regular Paleo nutrition, is that while meat is in the bottom so is unlimited non-starchy veggies.

Q: Beef play a huge role, as does poultry and fish. What do you recommend?

A: Really you are what you eat, and your food is what your food has been eating. For that reason, it’s important that you choose … from grass-fed and free-range sources. My personal favorite is a grass-fed porterhouse steak. With fish, it’s salmon because of the taste … and it’s really high in omega-3s.

Q: Nuts and seeds are a core Paleo concept. Which ones are best and how do they help?

A: I recommend one to two handfuls a day, rotating the variety you eat. I use PAW as the acronym … pecans, almonds and walnuts. Nuts and seeds satiate you and help when you start having a craving for something crunchy and salty.

Q: Why are beans (legumes) and grains not part of a Paleo diet?

A. Beans and legumes are a hot spot because they are considered anti-nutrients. (An anti-nutrient is a compound that interferes with the absorption of nutrients.) For example, kidney beans can cause inflammation and they are the highest in anti-nutrients. Some people who are 100% Paleo would say get rid of any food that has anti-nutrients. Grains are eliminated, too, because of the amount of anti-nutrient content. … But I am a fan of sprouting grains and there are sprouted breads like Eziekil and there is Paleo bread made with coconut flour.

Q: What fruits and vegetables are recommended?

A: It depends on your overall goal. We shoot toward thin skin fruits like berries. Most people who want to lose weight stay there. Athletes need to eat more thick-skin fruits like bananas and oranges.

Q: What’s your best Paleo cooking kitchen tip?

A: Take your favorite recipes and find simple Paleo modifications to them. For example, use Celtic sea salt instead of table salt, almond flour instead of regular flour and sweet potatoes instead of regular.

Q: Are there any foods you miss?

A: Not really. Most of the foods that aren’t Paleo should actually just be eaten for special occasions or celebrations — and that’s when I eat mine. I LOVE pizza, and I’ll have a few slices once every month or so. … Life is too short to say “no” to foods you love. We should just say “no” more often.

Contact Susan Selasky: 313-222-6432 or sselasky@freepress.com. Follow her on Twitter @SusanMariecooks.

Jicama Tacos

Serves: 8 / Preparation time: 30 minutes / Total time: 45 minutes

You may need to buy 2 jicamas. They should be close to the size of your mandoline, if using one. I was able to slice the jicamas thinly, carefully using a knife. Cut any leftover pieces of jicama into matchstick-size pieces and add them as a topping.

TACOS

1 to 2 jicamas

1 pound ground beef or turkey

Seasoning mixture

2 cups lettuce, loosely packed

1 cup guacamole

1/4 red onion, julienned

Favorite salsa

Cilantro and lime wedges for garnish

SEASONING MIXTURE

2 tablespoons chili powder

11/2 tablespoons cumin

11/2 tablespoons paprika

1 tablespoon onion powder

1 tablespoon garlic powder

2 teaspoons dried oregano

1/2 teaspoon red pepper flakes

Peel jicamas and slice as thinly as possible using a mandoline or a sharp knife. Soak jicama slices in warm water for about 10 to 15 minutes prior to serving. The slices will not become completely pliable like a soft corn tortilla, but enough to pick up and fold slightly.

In a large skillet, place the ground beef or turkey and cook on medium heat until no longer pink. Sprinkle with all the seasonings and stir until evenly distributed.

Pat jicama slices dry, and top with lettuce, meat, guacamole, onion and salsa.

Garnish with cilantro and lime wedges, and serve.

Adapated from “The Food Lovers Make it Paleo: Over 200 Recipes For Any Occasion” by Bill Staley and Hayley Mason (Victory Belt Publishing, $34.95).

Tested by Susan Selasky for the Free Press Test Kitchen. Nutrition information not available.

Cholesterol in food not a concern, new report says

CNN Explains: Cholesterol

Story highlights

  • Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee issues 2015 scientific report
  • Cholesterol in food no longer considered a “nutrient of concern” and has little effect on blood cholesterol, report says
  • Intake limits recommended on sodium, saturated fat and added sugars

(CNN)For more than a week, speculation has been running rampant. Here’s how it all started.

On February 10, The Washington Post published a headline that got a good amount of attention: “The U.S. government is poised to withdraw longstanding warnings about cholesterol.”

Every five years, the Department of Health and Human Services, along with the Department of Agriculture, issues “Dietary Guidelines for Americans,” a federal publication that has far-reaching implications on what we eat. The guidelines affect everything from the way companies can advertise their products, to what’s in your child’s school lunch, to the diet advice offered up by nearly every doctor and nutritionist in the country.

Remember the food pyramid from when you were growing up? Today’s iteration, MyPlate, relies on these guidelines as well. They’re also the basis for the information on nutrition facts labels on just about all food packaging.

So you can see why so many people are anxiously awaiting the 2015 update.

The 112-page report from 2010 included 23 recommendations for the general population and six additional recommendations for specific population groups, such as pregnant women. The three major goals emphasized were:

• Balance calories with physical activity to manage weight.

• Consume more of certain foods and nutrients such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fat-free and low-fat dairy products and seafood.

• Consume fewer foods with sodium (salt), saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, and refined grains.

What’s stirring the pot now is one bullet, on one slide (page 7) of thousands of slides, shown at one of seven public hearings held over the last two years to discuss the latest revisions to the guidelines:

“Cholesterol is not considered a nutrient of concern for overconsumption.”

Inside the advisory report

Sure enough, there it is, buried on page 91 of the 572-page  Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee: “Previously, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended that cholesterol intake be limited to no more than 300 mg/day. The 2015 DGAC will not bring forward this recommendation because available evidence shows no appreciable relationship between consumption of dietary cholesterol and serum (blood) cholesterol, consistent with the AHA/ACC (American Heart Association / American College of Cardiology) report. Cholesterol is not a nutrient of concern for overconsumption.”

What has foodies buzzing is that this is somewhat of a tectonic shift regarding one of the main nutritional designations of the foods we eat. Cholesterol has been a prominent part of dietary warnings and guidelines since the American Heart Association put the compound in its crosshairs more than half a century ago.

Dr. Steven Nissen, chairman of cardiovascular medicine at the Cleveland Clinic, told CNN: “The idea we need to limit saturated fat and cholesterol shifted Americans from a well-balanced diet to high-sugar diets, which made people eat more and get fatter.”

The reality, according to Nissen, is that only 15% of circulating cholesterol in the blood comes from what you eat. The other 85% comes from the liver. “So if you go on a diet,” he says, “you’re not changing your cholesterol very much.” Still, nutritionists are not recommending you go out and binge on cheeseburgers and fries.

A lot is riding on this decision. Foods that are high in cholesterol, like eggs, shrimp and lobster, could see a major uptick in sales. These foods, perhaps limited inside — or banished from — your home, could make a big comeback.

Who’s telling you what to eat

The 14 outside experts who made up the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee are nationally recognized in the fields of nutrition, medicine and public health.

In a letter to the HHS and USDA secretaries, 2015 DGAC chairwoman Barbara Millen highlights the major diet-related health problems she says we’re facing and must reverse.

“About half of all American adults — 117 million individuals — have one or more preventable (emphasis hers) chronic diseases that relate to poor quality dietary patterns and physical inactivity, including cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and diet-related cancers,” Millen writes.

“More than two-thirds of adults and nearly one-third of children and youth are overweight or obese. These devastating health problems have persisted for decades, strained U.S. health care costs, and focused the attention of our health care system on disease treatment rather than prevention. They call for bold action and sound, innovative solutions.”

Millen hopes the report will “establish a ‘culture of health’ at individual and population levels and, in so doing, make healthy lifestyle choices easy, accessible, affordable and normative — both at home and away from home.”

“Dramatic paradigm shifts are needed to help individuals and families take more active roles in their personal health and to incentivize health care and public health services, programs, and research to focus more on prevention and personal diet and lifestyle management.”

What’s wrong with the American diet

The report identifies underconsumed “shortfall nutrients,” including vitamins A, D, E and C, as well as folate, calcium, magnesium, potassium and fiber.

For adolescent and premenopausal females, iron is also considered a shortfall nutrient.

The DGAC singles out two nutrients which are overconsumed: sodium and saturated fat.

No surprise, that’s the result of eating too many refined grains, solid fats and added sugars.

The committee was cautiously optimistic about one age group: Young children (ages 2-5) are the only ones consuming the recommended amount of fruit and dairy, so perhaps there’s hope for the future. The report urges a better understanding of how to maintain and encourage good eating habits that are started early in life.

What you should be eating

It’s not just what we eat, it’s how we eat it. When looking into the common characteristics of healthy diets, the committee focused on research examining dietary patterns, because “the totality of the diet — the combinations and quantities in which foods and nutrients are consumed — may have synergistic and cumulative effects on health and disease.”

A healthy dietary pattern is higher in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low- or nonfat dairy, seafood, legumes and nuts; moderate in alcohol; lower in red and processed meat; and low in sugar-sweetened foods and drinks and refined grains.

The DGAC encourages dietary patterns that are low in saturated fat, added sugars and sodium. The goals for the general population are:

• Less than 2,300 milligrams of dietary sodium per day.

• Less than 10% of total calories from saturated fat per day.

• A maximum of 10% of total calories from added sugars per day.

“Sodium, saturated fat, and added sugars are not intended to be reduced in isolation, but as part of a healthy dietary pattern that is balanced, as appropriate, in calories,” the report states. “Rather than focusing purely on reduction, emphasis should also be placed on replacement and shifts in food intake and eating patterns.”

“Sources of saturated fat should be replaced with unsaturated fat, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids. Similarly, added sugars should be reduced in the diet and not replaced with low-calorie sweeteners, but rather with healthy options such as water in place of sugar-sweetened beverages. For sodium, emphasis should be placed on expanding industry efforts to reduce the sodium content of foods and helping consumers understand how to flavor unsalted foods with spices and herbs.”

What’s next?

“For decades, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans have been at the core of our efforts to promote the health and well-being of American families,” said HHS Secretary Sylvia Burwell and Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack in a joint statement. “Now that the advisory committee has completed its recommendations, HHS and USDA will review this advisory report, along with comments from the public — including other experts — and input from other federal agencies as we begin the process of updating the guidelines.”

The public is now encouraged to view the independent advisory group’s report and provide written comments for a period of 45 days. Look for the government’s final, updated guidelines by the end of the year.

Meantime, remember what Mom always told you: Eat your fruits and veggies — that is, if you want to have dessert.

Avoid low-fact diets: Despite the hype, no verdict yet on high-fat, low-carb regime

By David Seres
September 22, 2014

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If you have been reading the newspaper recently, you will have come across some startling new nutrition advice. A much hyped new study, conducted with just 150 participants, calls for us to “embrace fat”—even the saturated kind. The alleged benefits? Weight loss and, most incredibly, healthier hearts.

Unfortunately, this media attention is much ado about nothing.

Low-carb diets have been advocated by various “experts” for at least 225 years. Many sources credit John Rollo with being the first to promote a low carbohydrate diet for diabetics in the late 1700s. In the 1860s, an English undertaker by the name of Banting published his famous “Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the Public.”  His diet, which advocated giving up several starchy foods, was so popular that for decades dieting was actually called “Banting.”

James Salisbury, the 19th century American physician and food faddist, promoted the steak he named for himself as part of a high-meat diet in 1888.  Since then, the number of promoters for this dietary approach has been endless. I recall my mother eating cottage cheese in order to lose weight when I was growing up in the 60s, because of diet books written by doctors with nothing but theory to back them up.  Probably the most famous of all is Robert Atkins, whose book Dr. Atkins Diet Revolution, published in the mid 1960s, is still a bestseller.

In the two centuries during which these diets have been promoted, there have been hundreds of studies comparing low-carb to low-fat diets.  One would think that by now it would be clear which was superior if there really was a difference.  But if you take all of these diet studies, and analyze the enormous body of data they produced, there is no proven difference between them as far as weight loss is concerned. In fact, another such analysis was published the day after the over-hyped low-carb study with this same conclusion.

More to the point, however, is that this most recent study really did not actually prove that low-carb diets are superior. The low-fat diet in the study was not that low in fat, and the low-carb group ate significantly fewer calories.  If anything, the study only confirms that fewer calories result in more weight loss.

Moreover, the study provided intensive dietary counseling, not available to most people, and only followed participants for a year. Everyone who knows anything about weight loss knows that as soon as a diet ends, the pounds go right back on.  Indeed, studies show that only 15 to 25 percent of those who lose weight are then able to keep it off.

I honestly have no opinion as to whether altering the fat or carbs in your diet is the best way to lose weight, and I am considered an expert in nutrition. Of course, it is possible that this current study may, in fact, herald the breakthrough that we’ve all been waiting for.  But there would need to be many more studies to confirm these findings before we lay to rest this centuries-long debate.

PHOTO: A customer chooses meat at a meat market in Beijing May 31, 2013, in this file photo. REUTERS/Kim Kyung-Hoon

“THE FAT BASTARD GAZETTE” CHOLESTEROL, HYPERLIPIDEMIA AND YOU VOL. 1 NO. 12


Below is a very good article from Wikipedia on cholesterol, lipids etc. By now, we all know that too much cholesterol in the blood stream is not good. Nevertheless, how many of us have investigated further what elevated cholesterol and lipids really do in the circulatory system? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think you should know. Obesity and a diet rich in meat and dairy products, rather silent killers, bring about elevated cholesterol and triglycerides for many of us.

The article below has many hyperlinks related to hypercholesterolemia we suggest you read them for an informed nonprofessionals’ understanding of how deleterious this really is for the circulatory system.

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hypercholesterolemia (also spelled hypercholesterolaemia also called dyslipidemia) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.[1] It is a form of “hyperlipidemia” (elevated levels of lipids in the blood) and “hyperlipoproteinemia” (elevated levels of lipoproteins in the blood).[1]

Cholesterol is a sterol. It is one of three major classes of lipids which all animal cells utilize to construct their membranes and is thus manufactured by all animal cells. Plant cells do not manufacture cholesterol. It is also the precursor of the steroid hormones, bile acids and vitamin D.

Since cholesterol is insoluble in water, it is transported in the blood plasma within protein particles (lipoproteins). Lipoproteins are classified by their density: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL).[2] All the lipoproteins carry cholesterol, but elevated levels of the lipoproteins other than HDL (termed non-HDL cholesterol), particularly LDL-cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.[3] In contrast, higher levels of HDL cholesterol are protective.[4] Elevated levels of non-HDL cholesterol and LDL in the blood may be a consequence of diet, obesity, inherited (genetic) diseases (such as LDL receptor mutations in familial hypercholesterolemia), or the presence of other diseases such as diabetes and an underactive thyroid.[1]

Reducing saturated dietary fat is recommended to reduce total blood cholesterol and LDL in adults.[5] In people with very high cholesterol (e.g. familial hypercholesterolemia), diet is often insufficient to achieve the desired lowering of LDL and lipid lowering medications which reduce cholesterol production or absorption are usually required.[6] If necessary, other treatments such as LDL apheresis or even surgery (for particularly severe subtypes of familial hypercholesterolemia) are performed.[6]

Signs and symptoms

Xanthelasma palpebrarum, yellowish patches consisting of cholesterol deposits above the eyelids. These are more common in people with familial hypercholesterolemia.
Xanthelasma palpebrarum, yellowish patches consisting of cholesterol deposits above the eyelids. These are more common in people with familial hypercholesterolemia.

Xanthelasma palpebrarum, yellowish patches consisting of cholesterol deposits above the eyelids. These are more common in people with familial hypercholesterolemia.

Although hypercholesterolemia itself is asymptomatic, longstanding elevation of serum cholesterol can lead to atherosclerosis.[7] Over a period of decades, chronically elevated serum cholesterol contributes to formation of atheromatous plaques in the arteries. This can lead to progressive stenosis (narrowing) or even complete occlusion (blockage) of the involved arteries. Alternatively smaller plaques may rupture and cause a clot to form and obstruct blood flow.[8] A sudden occlusion of a coronary artery results in a myocardial infarction or heart attack. An occlusion of an artery supplying the brain can cause a stroke. If the development of the stenosis or occlusion is gradual blood supply to the tissues and organs slowly diminishes until organ function becomes impaired. At this point that tissue ischemia (restriction in blood supply) may manifest as specific symptoms. For example, temporary ischemia of the brain (commonly referred to as a transient ischemic attack) may manifest as temporary loss of vision, dizziness and impairment of balance, aphasia (difficulty speaking), paresis (weakness) and paresthesia (numbness or tingling), usually on one side of the body. Insufficient blood supply to the heart may manifest as chest pain, and ischemia of the eye may manifest as transient visual loss in one eye. Insufficient blood supply to the legs may manifest as calf pain when walking, while in the intestines it may present asabdominal pain after eating a meal.[1][9]

Some types of hypercholesterolemia lead to specific physical findings. For example, familial hypercholesterolemia (Type IIa hyperlipoproteinemia) may be associated with xanthelasma palpebrarum (yellowish patches underneath the skin around the eyelids),[10] arcus senilis (white or gray discoloration of the peripheral cornea),[11] and xanthomata (deposition of yellowish cholesterol-rich material) of the tendons, especially of the fingers.[12][13] Type III hyperlipidemia may be associated with xanthomata of the palms, knees and elbows.[12]

Causes

Hypercholesterolemia is typically due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors.[7] Environmental factors include obesity and dietary choices.[7] Genetic contributions are usually due to the additive effects of multiple genes, though occasionally may be due to a single gene defect such as in the case

Diet

Two bags of fresh frozen plasma: The bag on the left was obtained from a donor with hyperlipidemia, while the other bag was obtained from a donor with normal serum lipid levels.
Two bags of fresh frozen plasma: The bag on the left was obtained from a donor with hyperlipidemia, while the other bag was obtained from a donor with normal serum lipid levels.
Two bags of fresh frozen plasma: The bag on the left was obtained from a donorwith hyperlipidemia, while the other bag was obtained from a donor with normal serum lipidlevels.

Diet has an important effect on blood cholesterol, but the size of this effect varies substantially between individuals.[14] About 50% of nonesterified cholesterol is absorbed in the intestine,[15] but interindividual variations in the efficiency of uptake, and the effect of other dietary components such as plant sterols and fiber content affect absorption.[15] Moreover, when dietary cholesterol intake goes down, production (principally by the liver[16]) typically increases, though not always with complete compensation, so that reductions in blood cholesterol can be modest. Reductions in fat intake, particularly saturated fats, also reduce blood cholesterol.[17] Dietary sucrose and fructose can raise LDL cholesterol levels in the blood.[18] In the United States, the National Lipid Association Expert Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolemia recommends that people with familial hypercholesterolemia restrict intakes of total fat to 25 – 35% of energy intake, saturated fatty acids should make up less than 7% of energy intake, and cholesterol intake should be less than 200 mg per day.[6] The inclusion of 2 g per day of plant stanol or sterol esters and 10 to 20 g per day of soluble fiber decrease dietary cholesterol absorption.[6] Dietary changes can typically achieve reductions of 10 to 15% in blood cholesterol.[6]

Maintaining a healthy body weight through increased physical activity and appropriate caloric intake is also important. Overweight or obese individuals can lower blood cholesterol by losing weight – on average a kilogram of weight loss can reduce LDL cholesterol by 0.8 mg/dl.[6]

Genetics

Genetic abnormalities are in some cases completely responsible for hypercholesterolemia, such as in familial hypercholesterolemia, where one or more genetic mutations in the autosomal dominant APOB gene exist, the autosomal recessive LDLRAP1 gene, autosomal dominant familial hypercholesterolemia (HCHOLA3) variant of the PCSK9 gene, or the LDL receptor gene.[19]

Even when no single mutation is responsible for hypercholesterolemia, genetic predisposition still plays a major role in combination with sedentary lifestyle, obesity, or anatherogenic diet.[20]

Diagnosis

Interpretation of cholesterol levels
cholesterol type mg/dl mmol/l interpretation
total cholesterol <200 <5.2 desirable[21]
200-239 5.2-6.2 borderline[21]
>240 >6.2 high[21]
LDL cholesterol <100 <2.6 most desirable[21]
100-129 2.6-3.3 good[21]
130-159 3.4-4.1 borderline high[21]
160-189 4.1-4.9 high and undesirable[21]
>190 >4.9 very high[21]
HDL cholesterol <40 <1.0 undesirable; risk increased[21]
41-59 1.0-1.5 okay, but not optimal[21]
>60 >1.55 good; risk lowered[21]
Indications to lower LDL cholesterol
Coronary risk because they have… should consider reduction indicated
high >20% risk of MI in 10 years, or risk factor such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, peripheral-artery disease, carotid-artery disease, or aortic aneurysm >70 mg/dl, 3.88 mmol/l especially if there are risk factors[22][23] >100 mg/dl, 5.55 mmol/l[22]
moderately high 10-20% risk of MI in 10 years and > 1 risk factors >100 mg/dl, 5.55 mmol/l[22] >130 mg/dl, 7.21 mmol/l[22]
moderate <10% risk of MI in 10 years > 1 risk factors >130 mg/dl, 7.21 mmol/l[22] >160 mg/dl, 8.88 mmol/l[22]
low No or one risk factor >160 mg/dl, 8.88 mmol/l[22] >190 mg/dl, 10.5 mmol/l[22]

Cholesterol is measured as milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) of blood in the United States and some other countries. In the United Kingdom, most European countries, and Canada, millimoles per liter of blood (mmol/l) is the measure.[24]

For healthy adults, the UK National Health Service recommends upper limits of total cholesterol of 5 mmol/l, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) of 3 mmol/l. For people at high risk of cardiovascular disease, the recommended limit for total cholesterol is 4 mmol/l, and 2 mmol/l for LDL.[25]

In the United States, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute within the National Institutes of Health classifies total cholesterol of less than 200 mg/dl as “desirable,” 200 to 239 mg/dl as “borderline high,” and 240 mg/dl or more as “high”.[26]

No absolute cutoff between normal and abnormal cholesterol levels exists, and interpretation of values must be made in relation to other health conditions and risk factors.

Higher levels of total cholesterol increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary heart disease. Levels of LDL or non-HDL cholesterol both predict future coronary heart disease; which is the better predictor is disputed.[27] High levels of small dense LDL may be particularly adverse, although measurement of small dense LDL is not advocated for risk prediction.[27] In the past, LDL and VLDL levels were rarely measured directly due to cost. Levels of fasting triglycerides were taken as an indicator of VLDL levels (generally about 45% of fasting triglycerides is composed of VLDL), while LDL was usually estimated by the Friedewald formula:

LDL \approx total cholesterol – HDL – (0.2 x fasting triglycerides).

However, this equation is not valid on nonfasting blood samples or if fasting triglycerides are elevated >4.5 mmol/l (> ∼400 mg/dl). Recent guidelines have, therefore, advocated the use of direct methods for measurement of LDL wherever possible.[27] It may be useful to measure all lipoprotein subfractions ( VLDL, IDL, LDL, and HDL) when assessing hypercholesterolemia and measurement of apolipoproteins and lipoprotein (a) can also be of value.[27] Genetic screening is now advised if a form of familial hypercholesterolemia is suspected.[27]

Classification

Main article: Hyperlipidemia

Classically, hypercholesterolemia was categorized by lipoprotein electrophoresis and the Fredrickson classification. Newer methods, such as “lipoprotein subclass analysis”, have offered significant improvements in understanding the connection with atherosclerosis progression and clinical consequences. If the hypercholesterolemia is hereditary (familial hypercholesterolemia), more often a family history of premature, earlier onset atherosclerosis is found.

Screening

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force strongly recommends routine screening for men 35 years and older and women 45 years and older for lipid disorders and the treatment of abnormal lipids in people who are at increased risk of coronary heart disease. They also recommend routinely screening men aged 20 to 35 years and women aged 20 to 45 years if they have other risk factors for coronary heart disease.[28] In Canada, screening is recommended for men 40 and older and women 50 and older.[29] In those with normal cholesterol levels, screening is recommended once every five years.[30] Once people are on a statin further testing provides little benefit except to possibly determine compliance with treatment.[31]

Treatment[edit]

Recommendations for both primary prevention[32] and secondary prevention[33] have been published. For those at high risk, a combination of lifestyle modification and statins has been shown to decrease mortality.[7]

Lifestyle[edit]

Lifestyle changes recommended for those with high cholesterol include: smoking cessation, limiting alcohol consumption, increasing physical activity, and maintaining a healthy weight. A diet that emphasizes low-cholesterol foods, restricts saturated fats,[7] and avoids trans fat is also recommended.[34] In strictly controlled surroundings, dietary changes can reduce cholesterol levels by 15%. In practice, dietary advice can provide a modest decrease in cholesterol levels and may be sufficient in the treatment of mildly elevated cholesterol.[35]

Medication

Statins (or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are commonly used to treat hypercholesterolemia if diet is ineffective. Other agents that may be used include: fibrates, nicotinic acid, and cholestyramine.[36] These, however, are only recommended if statins are not tolerated or in pregnant women.[36] Statins can reduce total cholesterol by about 50% in the majority of people;[27] effects appear similar regardless of the statin used.[37] While statins are effective in decreasing mortality in those who have had previous cardiovascular disease, debate exists over whether or not they are effective in those with high cholesterol but no other health problems.[38] One review did not find a mortality benefit in those at high risk, but without prior cardiovascular disease.[38] Other reviews concluded a mortality benefit does exist,[37][39][40] but concerns regarding the quality of the evidence persist.[41] With respect to quality of life evidence of improvement is limited when statins are used in people without existing cardiovascular disease (i.e. for primary prevention).[41]Statins decrease cholesterol in children with hypercholesterolemia, but no studies as of 2010 show improved clinical outcomes[42] and diet is the mainstay of therapy in childhood.[27]

Guidelines

Various clinical practice guidelines have addressed the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The American College of Physicians has addressed hypercholesterolemia in patients with diabetes.[43] Their four recommendations are:

  1. Lipid-lowering therapy should be used for secondary prevention of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity for all patients (both men and women) with known coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes.
  2. Statins should be used for primary prevention against macrovascular complications in patients (both men and women) with type 2 diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors.
  3. Once lipid-lowering therapy is initiated, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus should be taking at least moderate doses of a statin (the accompanying evidence report states “simvastatin, 40 mg/d; pravastatin, 40 mg/d; lovastatin, 40 mg/d; atorvastatin, 20 mg/d; or an equivalent dose of another statin”).[44]
  4. For those patients with type 2 diabetes who are taking statins, routine monitoring of liver function tests or muscle enzymes is not recommended except in specific circumstances.

The National Cholesterol Education Program revised their guidelines;[45] however, their 2004 revisions have been criticized for use of nonrandomized, observational data.[46]

In the UK, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence has made recommendations for the treatment of elevated cholesterol levels, published in 2008.[36]

The Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Atherosclerosis Society published guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias in 2011.[27]

Alternative medicine

According to a survey in 2002, alternative medicine was used in an attempt to treat cholesterol by 1.1% of U.S. adults. Consistent with previous surveys, this one found the majority of individuals (55%) used it in conjunction with conventional medicine.[47] A review of trials of phytosterols and/or phytostanols reported an average of 9% lowering of LDL-cholesterol.[48] In 2000, the Food and Drug Administration approved the labeling of foods containing specified amounts of phytosterol esters or phytostanol esters as cholesterol-lowering; in 2003, an FDA Interim Health Claim Rule extended that label claim to foods or dietary supplements delivering more than 0.8 g/day of phytosterols or phytostanols. Some researchers, however, are concerned about diet supplementation with plant sterol esters and draw attention to lack of long-term safety data.[49]

Epidemiology

Rates of high total cholesterol in the United States in 2010 are just over 13%, down from 17% in 2000.[50]

Average total cholesterol in the United Kingdom is 5.9 mmol/l, while in rural China and Japan, average total cholesterol is 4 mmol/l.[7] Rates of coronary artery disease are high in Great Britain, but low in rural China and Japan.[7]

References

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Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot  Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.