FRUIT FLY NEURONS AND HUMAN NEURONS CAN TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REAL SUGAR AND ARTIFICIAL SWEETENER CAUSING A HUNGER RESPONSE ! VOL. 1 NO. 40


How many times have you gone to the refrigerator or pantry and pulled out something that was fat-free and sweetened with artificial sweetener only to return a few minutes later still hungry?

Sugar-substitutes-1024x749
Click to enlarge

One theory bandied about this observed occurrence “is that artificial sweeteners don’t contain the calories or energy that evolution has trained the brain to expect from sweet-tasting foods, so they don’t fool the brain into satisfying hunger. However, until now, nobody understood how organisms distinguish between real sugar and artificial sweetener.” (diet sweeteners could exist in humans, 2015)

Monica Dus
Monica Dus

Monica Dus, a researcher at the University of Michigan, has discovered how the brain and the fruit fly can tell between the two. “Because that molecular machinery is present in the guts and brains of humans on a larger scale… human brains will differentiate in the same way.” (diet sweeteners could exist in humans, 2015)

“Fruit flies and humans share about 75 percent of the same disease-causing genes, says Dus, first author on a study that outlines the findings and appears in the journal Neuron.” (Bailey, 2015)     

 

“We can ask, ‘Do these genes work the same in humans, to tell real sugar from artificial sweetener?'” Dus said. “The bits and pieces are there, so it is really possible that these genes work in a similar way. Plus, we knew that the human brain could tell the difference between real and fake sugar, we just did not know how.” (Bailey, 2015)

Male fruit fly (Zaprionus vittiger)
Male fruit fly (Zaprionus vittiger)

Dus et al. withheld food from the fruit flies for a few hours and then placed before the diet, artificial sweeteners, and real sugar. When the flies ate the real sugar, a group of six neurons signaled the release of a hormone in the gut and brain.

The hormone signaled digestion and allowed the fly to eat more food. When the fly tried the artificial sweetener with no nutritive value, the neurons did not fire and signal the hormone/digestive reaction.

In all cases, the flies ate the regular sugar because the starved flies needed the energy/calories that real sugar supplied.

frtfly5_1.jpg.580x435_q85“From an evolutionary perspective, sweet taste means sugar (traditionally from fruit or high concentrate carbohydrates) and a subsequent big energy boost. Fruit flies can’t call out for pizza–their brains expect calories if they eat something sweet, and that’s why they chose the regular sugar, Dus says.” (diet sweeteners could exist in humans, 2015)

“If our brains work the same way, this helps explains why diet foods don’t satiate or satisfy us, and we gain weight while dieting. It’s analogous to a person eating that entire sleeve of low-calorie cookies and the body telling her she’s still hungry. She keeps snacking until she eats something with nutritional value that meets her energy needs.” (Bailey, 2015)

(a) Human brain imaged at 1 mm resolution as indicated by voxel size. (b) Mouse brain imaged at 60 μm. (c) Drosophila head on an RF microcoil
(a) Human brain imaged at 1 mm resolution as indicated by voxel size. (b) Mouse brain imaged at 60 μm. (c) Drosophila head on an RF micro coil. Click to enlarge

The fruit fly is been shown to have approximately 100,000 neurons; the human brain about 86 billion. The six neurons identified in the study of fruit flies approximate the same spot and humans. This allows the researchers to more easily hone in on location in the human brain. “The neurons fire only when they encounter real sugar” (Bailey, 2015), which offers a way for the brain to tell the difference between sugar and artificial sweeteners.

“In two previous studies, Dus and her colleagues found that flies that couldn’t taste preferred real sugar to a zero-calorie sweetener, which underscores the theory of energy preference. They also characterized a neural circuit, dubbed Cupcake+, which functions as a behavioral on/off switch for eating. Turning off the Cupcake neurons makes the fruit flies “feel” hungry, Dus says.” (Bailey, 2015)


Bailey, L. (2015, June 11). Regular soda, please: Hormone that differentiates sugar, diet sweeteners could exist in humans. Retrieved June 12, 2015, from MICHIGAN NEWS University of Michigan: http://ns.umich.edu/new/multimedia/videos/22948-regular-soda-please-hormone-that-differentiates-sugar-diet-sweeteners-could-exist-in-humans

diet sweeteners could exist in humans. (2015, June 12). Retrieved June 6, 2015, from MNT: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/295299.php?tw

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

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DIETING DRIVES ME NUTS!!! VOL. 1 NO. 39


diets-make-you-fatA press release by the University of Buffalo entitled “Thoughts drive dieting plans but feelings drive dieting behavior” states that a majority of the American adult population has tried dieting. Approximately one third of adults are currently on a diet.

A whopping 60% of American adults are overweight or obese. Over a 16% of deaths are related to diet and lack of physical activity.

1430850566354
Marc Kiviniemi

Marc Kiviniemi, a public health researcher at the University of Buffalo says, “There is clearly a disconnect if we have a majority of the population that has tried to lose weight and a majority of the population that is overweight. People are planning to diet and trying to diet, but that’s not translating into a successful weight-loss effort.”

Many factors determine ones weight control from biological to environmental, but behavioral management plays a big part in one’s weight control.

Dieting involves changing ones eating pattern and behave according to that new pattern. “But the factors that guide diet planning differ from those that guide actual diet behavior,” according to the results of Kiviniemi’s new study with Carolyn Brown-Kramer of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln published May,2015  in the Journal of Health Psychology.

fat_people_logic_540“The crux of the disconnect is the divide between thoughts and feelings. Planning is important, but feelings matter, and focusing on feelings and understanding their role can be a great benefit,” says Kiviniemi.

Plans to change dieting behavior are a cerebral function, the understanding that weight-loss is a possibility in making better food choices. Executing the diet however becomes an issue of feelings that determine the behavior.

fatpeoplead
Click to enlarge

“If you’re sitting back conceiving a plan you may think rationally about the benefits of eating healthier foods, but when you’re in the moment, making a decision, engaging in a behavior, it’s the feelings associated with that behavior that may lead you to make different decisions from those you planned to make.”

The findings of Kiviniemi and Kramer underscore the pitfalls of extreme deprivation diets or diets that do not take into account individual preferences.

poor-diet-men“First of all, the deprivation experience is miserable. If you didn’t associate negative feelings with it to start, you will after a few days,” says Kiviniemi. “The other thing that’s important is the distinction between things that require effort and things that are automatic.”

“Planning is an effort that demands mental energy, but feelings happen automatically. Deprivation or anything that demands a high degree of self-control is a cognitive process. If you put yourself in a position to use that energy every time you make a food choice that energy is only going to last so long.”

Kiviniemi says dieters should think about enjoyment when planning their diet strategy and executing said diet.

“In the dietary domain, eating more fruits and vegetables is fabulous advice. But if you have negative feelings about those food choices, they might not represent elements of a good plan,” says Kiviniemi. “It’s not just about eating healthy foods. It’s about eating the healthy foods you like the most.”

And let’s be frank a diet is a diet It takes a lot of energy to move good intentions into actions that is why diet planning should be based on both thoughts and feelings .

“Think seriously about how you’re going to implement the plans you make to change your behavior, and that includes not only the feeling component, but how you plan to overcome a negative reaction that might surface during a diet.”

One of the key features of successful dieting is not just knowing what we’re eating is healthful, but how we will feel eating what we know to be healthful.

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot  Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

IS A HIGH PROTEIN DIET THE CURE? VOL. 1 NO. 38


According to obesity1-617x416Heather J Leidy, an assistant professor in the MU Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology in “The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance,” “Over the past 20 y, higher-protein diets have been touted as a successful strategy to prevent or treat obesity through improvements in body weight management. These improvements are thought to be due, in part, to modulations (adjustments) in energy metabolism, appetite, and energy intake. Recent evidence also supports higher-protein diets for improvements in cardio metabolic risk factors.” She and her colleagues found a reduction in triglycerides, blood pressure, and waist circumference. They found how-to-lose-weight-in-a-week1in the studies “greater perceived fullness and elevated satiety hormones after higher protein meals” in the test subjects. Their study did not support any effect on food intake at the next meal. Meta-analysis confirmed, “persistent benefits of a higher protein weight-loss diet on a body weight and fat mass.” It was found that any discrepancy in the results came from the lack of dietary compliance by the test subjects. 25 to 30 g of high protein per meal provided “improvements in appetite, body weight management, cardiometabolic risk factors, or all of these health outcomes.”

steak and eggsSo what more can be said? Eat breakfast, “There is evidence that supports unique benefits with increased protein consumption at breakfast for improved satiety and reductions in unhealthy snacking in the evening.”

High-Protein-Foods-Lose-Weight-FastConsume ‘complete protein’(proteins found in animal-based foods such as beef, pork, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products contain all the essential amino acids and are easily digestible) over three meals as evenly as possible. “Quantities of at least ~ 25–30 g protein/meal provide improvements in appetite, body weight management, and/or cardiometabolic risk factors compared with lower-protein diets. In addition, under isoenergetic (equally active) conditions, the increase in protein appears to be the critical component, not the reduction in carbohydrates or fat” in your diet. Do not forget the fruit, vegetables, dairy, and fiber.

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.


 

Heather J Leidy, P. M.-P. (2015, April 29). AJCN. Retrieved from The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/recent 

Sponsorship was provided by The Beef Checkoff, with additional support from The Dairy Research Institute, Egg Nutrition Center, Global Dairy Platform, Hillshire Brands and the National Pork Board. To view an informational supplement about research on the benefits of protein, visit:

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/recent

University of Missouri-Columbia

 

 

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot  Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

OBESITY, NATURE OR NURTURE? VOL. 1 NO. 37


food spreadHow many times have you heard people say,” I can eat anything as much as I like and  not gain a pound”   or “Even if I look at food I gain weight!” Well researchers at the National Institutes of Health have turned these beliefs, for the first time in a lab, into fact. Study results were published May 11 in Diabetes.

niddk-11_l
Lead researchers Drs. Martin Reinhardt and Susanne Votruba stand next to the carbon dioxide and oxygen analyzers, and outside the whole-room indirect calorimeter. The analyzers measured the study participants’ energy expenditure while they were inside the calorimeter. Credit: Enrique Diaz

Researchers at the Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch (PECRB), part of the NIH’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, studied men and women with obesity. ”Using a whole-room indirect calorimeter – which allows energy expenditure to be calculated based on air samples – researchers took baseline measurements of the participants’ energy expenditure in response to a day of fasting, followed by a six-week inpatient phase of 50 percent calorie reduction.” The researchers found that those who lost the least had the greatest decrease in metabolism during fasting. The people who lost the most had a metabolism that decreased the least. The first group is viewed as having a “thrifty” metabolism the second group a “spendthrift” metabolism.

obese_people_ct_scan“When people who are obese decrease the amount of food they eat, metabolic responses vary greatly, with a ‘thrifty’ metabolism possibly contributing to less weight lost,” said Susanne Votruba, Ph.D., study author and PECRB clinical investigator. “While behavioral factors such as adherence to diet affect weight loss to an extent, our study suggests we should consider a larger picture that includes individual physiology – and that weight loss is one situation where being thrifty doesn’t pay.”

Researchers still do not know whether the biological differences are inborn or develop over time. More study is needed to resolve whether a person’s responses to calorie deficit can be used to prevent weight gain.

“The results corroborate the idea that some people who are obese may have to work harder to lose weight due to metabolic differences,” said Martin Reinhardt, M.D., lead author and PECRB postdoctoral fellow. “But biology is not destiny. Balanced diet and regular physical activity over a long period can be very effective for weight loss.”

According to the NIH, more than one-third of American adults are obese. Complications from obesity can include heart disease, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer, some of the leading causes of preventable death.

“What we’ve learned from this study may one day enable a more personalized approach to help people who are obese achieve a healthy weight,” said NIDDK Director Griffin P. Rodgers, M.D.

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot  Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

 

SMALL CHANGES MAKE A BIG DIFFERENCE IN LONG TERM WEIGHT LOSS! VOL.1 NO.27


download“Making small, consistent changes to the types of protein-and carbohydrate-rich foods we eat may have a big impact on long-term weight gain, according to a study led by researchers at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy at Tufts University in the USA. They found that people who increased intake of red meat or increased the glycemic load (GL) 1 of their diet gained more weight over 4 years than those who increased their intake of nuts, dairy foods, and legumes or decreased their GL. The study suggests there is more to weight gain than calorie intake, diet composition matters too. The results published in the The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.” (Tufts University News Release, 2015)

 Jessica Smith, Ph.D. corresponding author and fellow researcher said, “There is mounting scientific evidence that diets including less low-quality carbohydrates, such as white breads, potatoes, and sweets, and higher in protein-rich foods may be more efficient for weight loss. We wanted to know how that might apply to preventing weight gain in the first place.” (Tufts University News Release, 2015)

The research was based on more than 16 years of follow-up among 120,000 men and women from the results of three long-term studies. Smith et al. looked at the relationship between protein-rich foods and long-term weight gain every four years of follow-up. Their results found:

  • Increasing intakes of red meat and processed meat were most strongly associated with weight gain.
  • Increasing intakes of yogurt, seafood, skinless chicken, and nuts were most strongly associated with weight loss – the more people ate, the less weight they gained.
  • Increasing other dairy products, including whole milk and low-fat milk, did not enough significantly relate to either weight gain or weight loss.

fat-eating1“The fat content of dairy products did not seem to be important for weight gain,” Smith said. “In fact, when people consumed more low-fat dairy products, they actually increased their consumption of carbs, which may promote weight gain. This suggests that people compensate, over years, for the lower calories in low-fat dairy by increasing their carb intake.” (Tufts University News Release, 2015)

3812400434_5cd29c5959_oThe researchers noted interacting relationships between changes in protein-rich foods and changes in glycemic load1 of the diet. As an example, increasing the amount of food associated with weight gain, like red meat, and white bread raised the glycemic load. Decreasing in glycemic load1 by eating red meat with vegetables decreased the amount of weight gain as well.

For fish, nuts, and poultry like chicken there was an association with weight-loss. If the glycemic load were, also decreased weight-loss would be enhanced. Foods like eggs and cheese were not linked to weight change on average, but an increased intake in combination with an increased glycemic load1 are seen to cause weight gain. However, when eggs and cheese or increased in glycemic load1 decreased participants lost weight.

protein-foods-for-your-body“Our study adds to growing new research that counting calories is not the most effective strategy for long-term weight management and prevention,” said senior author Dariush Mozaffarian, M.D., Dr.P.H. dean of the Friedman School. “Some foods help prevent weight gain, others make it worse. Most interestingly, the combination of foods seems to make a big difference. Our findings suggest we should not only emphasize specific protein-rich foods like fish, nuts, and yogurt to prevent weight gain, but also focus on avoiding refined grains, starches, and sugars in order to maximize the benefits of these healthful protein-rich foods, create new benefits for other foods like eggs and cheese, and reduce the weight gain associated with meats.” (Tufts University News Release, 2015)

This research relied on validated self-reported food questionnaires from three studies that enrolled doctors, and nurses and other healthcare professionals from across the U.S.


  1. Glycemic load

Excerpt is from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Go to hyperlink for full text.

The glycemic load (GL) of food is a number that estimates how much the food will raise a person’s blood glucose level after eating it. One unit of glycemic load approximates the effect of consuming one gram of glucose.[1] Glycemic load accounts for how much carbohydrate is in the food and how much each gram of carbohydrate in the food raises blood glucose levels. Glycemic load is based on the glycemic index (GI), and is defined as the grams of available carbohydrate in the food times the food’s GI.

Glycemic load estimates the impact of carbohydrate consumption using the glycemic index while taking into account the amount of carbohydrate that is consumed. GL is a GI-weighted measure of carbohydrate content. For instance, watermelon has a high GI, but a typical serving of watermelon does not contain much carbohydrate, so the glycemic load of eating it is low. Whereas glycemic index is defined for each type of food, glycemic load can be calculated for any size serving of a food, an entire meal, or an entire day’s meals.

Glycemic load of a serving of food can be calculated as its carbohydrate content measured in grams (g), multiplied by the food’s GI, and divided by 100. For example, watermelon has a GI of 72. A 100-g serving of watermelon has 5 g of available carbohydrates (it contains a lot of water), making the calculation 5 x 72/100=3.6, so the GL is 3.6. A food with a GI of 100 and 10 g of available carbohydrates has a GL of 10 (10 x 100/100=10), while a food with 100 g of carbohydrate and a GI of just 10 also has a GL of 10 (100 x 10/100=10).

For one serving of a food, a GL greater than 20 is considered high, a GL of 11-19 is considered medium, and a GL of 10 or less is considered low. Foods that have a low GL in a typical serving size almost always have a low GI. Foods with an intermediate or high GL in a typical serving size range from a very low to very high GI.


Hoskins, I. (2015, April 10). Diet composition can affect long term weight gain. Retrieved June 8, 2015, from Nutrition and Food Sciences: http://www.cabi.org/nutrition/news/24369

Smith JD, Hou T, Ludwig DS, Rimm EB, Willett W, Hu FB and Mozaffarian D. “Changes in intake of protein foods, carbohydrate amount and quality, and long-term weight change: results from 3 prospective cohorts.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2015; 101:1-9. Published online ahead of print April 8, 2015. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2015/04/08/ajcn.114.100867.abstract

Tufts University News Release. (2015, April 9). Choice of Protein- and Carbohydrate-Rich Foods May Have Big Effects on Long-Term Weight Gain – See more at http://now.tufts.edu/news-releases/choice-protein-and-carbohydrate-rich-foods-may-have-big-effects-long-term-weight-gain#sthash.mBCvjzF9.dpuf. Retrieved June 8, 2015, from TuftsNow: http://now.tufts.edu/news-releases/choice-protein-and-carbohydrate-rich-foods-may-have-big-effects-long-term-weight-gain

 

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot  Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.