POPULAR DIETS AND CORRECTING THE NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES IN EACH


5607351_origWhat diet are you on? If it is the paleo, high protein, low carb, gluten-free, vegetarian and vegan diet then this article may be of interest to you. Whether people choose these diets with the hope of losing weight or maintaining a semblance of wellness, individuals that subscribe to these diets could be missing some essential vitamins and nutrients. In the April issue of Food Technology Magazine, Linda Milo Ohr writes about the vitamin and nutrient deficiencies in these popular diets and what is needed to make up for them.

Vegetarian and Vegan

Individuals following the vegetarian and vegan diet comprise a significant and growing part of the consumer base worldwide, as much as 20% of the global population (DSM 2013). Worldwide, there are around 1.4 billion vegetarians, and the number is increasing.

The 2015-2020 U.S. Vegetarian Healthy Eating plan includes more legumes, soy products, nuts, seeds, and whole grains compared to the standard Health U.S. Style Eating Pattern. It contains no meats, poultry, or seafood. Due to differences in the foods included in the protein foods group, specifically more tofu and beans, the vegetarian diet plan is somewhat higher in calcium and dietary fiber and lower in vitamin D (HHS/USDA 2016).

http://patch.com/new-jersey/ramsey-nj/how-avoid-common-nutrient-deficiencies-if-youre-vegan
http://patch.com/new-jersey/ramsey-nj/how-avoid-common-nutrient-deficiencies-if-youre-vegan

The Mayo Clinic recommends that vegetarians pay special attention to eating foods that contain calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B12, protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, and zinc. Vitamin B12 is necessary to produce red blood cells while the iron is also a component of red blood cells and is important for oxygen transport. It also plays a role in energy metabolism and the immune system.
Omega-3 fatty acids are important for heart health and cognition. They are mainly found in fish; however, vegetarian-sourced omega-3s are available (Ohr, 2016).

High-Protein/Low-Carb/Gluten-Free
High-protein/low-carbohydrate diets, carbohydrate-free diets, and gluten-free diets put a major emphasis on eliminating or reducing carbohydrate consumption and often whole grains from the diet. Gluten-free diets are essential for those diagnosed with celiac disease, but the gluten-free lifestyle has a growing following among those who feel they are sensitive to gluten, think gluten is bad for them, or want to reduce carbohydrates in their diets (Ohr, 2016).

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“Low-carbohydrate diets have been around for a long time,” says Jim White, spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (eatright.org) and owner of Jim White Fitness & Nutrition Studios, Virginia Beach, Va. (jimwhitefit.com). “With low carbs, you are missing one of the major macronutrients, whole grains. You can end up missing out on B vitamins for energy metabolism and dietary fiber, which already as a nation we are not consuming enough of.” White explains that if not enough fiber is consumed, the unique nutritional benefits aren’t felt, such as satiety, transit time, and cholesterol reduction. “Initially, when you decrease carbohydrates, there will be weight loss, but most will be water weight because there are about 3 grams of water per 1 gram of carbohydrate.” White notes that consumers following a gluten-free diet do have other sources of complex carbohydrates available to them, including quinoa, brown rice, and sweet potatoes.

Paleo
The Paleo diet, often referred to as the Caveman diet, advises consumers to return to the eating habits of our ancestors. The basic diet consists of lean meat, fish/seafood, nuts, fruits, vegetables, and healthful oils (olive, walnut, flaxseed, macadamia, avocado, and coconut). What is cut out of the diet are grains, legumes, dairy products, foods high in refined sugar and salt, processed foods, potatoes, and refined vegetable oils (Ohr, 2016).

http://www.christopherjamesclark.com/blog/the-paleo-diet-and-b-vitamin-deficiencies-the-critics-vs-the-data/
http://www.christopherjamesclark.com/blog/the-paleo-diet-and-b-vitamin-deficiencies-the-critics-vs-the-data/

The Paleo diet is popular for weight loss as well as athletic performance because of its focus on lean protein consumption. Manheimer et al. (2015) demonstrated that the Paleo diet resulted in greater short-term improvements on metabolic syndrome components than did guideline-based control diets. The researchers conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the Paleo nutritional pattern with any other dietary pattern in participants with one or more of the five components of metabolic syndrome. Four RCTs that involved 159 participants were included. The four control diets were based on distinct national nutrition guidelines but were broadly similar. Paleo nutrition resulted in greater short-term improvements than did the control diets for waist circumference, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and fasting blood sugar (Ohr, 2016).

With its focus on lean proteins and elimination of grains and dairy, those following the Paleo lifestyle need to consider nutrients they may not be getting in adequate amounts. It is recommended that people should supplement with folate, B vitamins, calcium, and vitamin D. “With many diets, especially Paleo and dairy-free, we are seeing people not getting enough calcium and vitamin D,” observes White.

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

 


 

Ohr, L. M. (2016, April). Filling in Nutrient Gaps, Volume 70, Number 4. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from IFT: http://www.ift.org/food-technology/past-issues/2016/april/columns/nutraceuticals-nutrient-gaps.aspx

DSM. 2013. Essentials for Vegetarians. DSM Nutritional Products, Heerlen, the Netherlands. dsm.com.

HHS/USDA. 2016. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services/U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/.

Manheimer, E. W., E. J. van Zuuren, Z. Fedorowicz, and H. Pijl. 2015. “Paleolithic Nutrition for Metabolic Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 102(4): 922–932.

 

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

TATTOO YOU, WHAT TO THINK ABOUT BEFORE THE TATTOO!


Many Americans are being tattooed to these days. Surveys indicate approximately one in five Americans now has at least one tattoo.

 Linda Katz, M.D., M.P.H., Director of FDA's Office of Cosmetics and Colors
Linda Katz, M.D., M.P.H., Director of FDA’s Office of Cosmetics and Colors

It is also shown with the increasing popularity of tattoos, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is seeing a rise in reports of individuals developing infections from contaminated tattoo inks, as well as having bad reactions to the inks themselves,
according to Linda Katz, M.D., M.P.H., director of FDA’s Office of Cosmetics and Colors.

Before getting a tattoo, mull over the seven important questions (as answered by Dr. Katz):

1. Should I be concerned about non-sterile needles, or the ink itself?

sciencephoto_rf_photo_of_infected_tattoo
Infected tattoo

Both; while it’s true that you can get infections from unhygienic practices and equipment that isn’t sterile, in the last several years there have been cases in which people got infections because the ink itself was contaminated with microorganisms, such as bacteria and mold introduced either at the time of manufacture or at the tattoo parlor. Using non-sterile water to dilute the pigments is a common culprit, although not the only one.

There is no sure-fire way to tell if the ink is safe. Just looking at it or smelling it will not tell you if it is contaminated. An ink can be contaminated even if the container is sealed or wrapped, or the label asserts the product is sterile. In fact, ink could become contaminated at any point in the production process.

State, county, or local health departments oversee the operation of tattoo parlors. In situations in which firms recall tattoo inks, FDA is often involved in alerting firms to problems related to their inks and working with the firms to make sure recalls are effective. FDA also alerts the public when it becomes aware of a public health concern.

2. What does FDA know about inks?

eternallabel1The information the agency has about inks is limited. But FDA is analyzing tattoo inks and pigments for contaminants, heavy metals, degradants, potentially toxic chemicals—including pH stabilizers, microbicides and coating agents—and other materials that are not intended to be placed into the body. There are reports in the published scientific literature of tattoo inks that contain everything from pigments used in printer toner to pigments used in car paint.

3. What about do-it-yourself tattoo inks and kits?

tattoo_729-420x0-ebay.com_.aiu_Inks and kits sold online to consumers have been associated with reports of infection or allergic reaction. The agency is also concerned that, unlike most licensed tattoo artists, consumers will not have sufficient knowledge or the means to control and avoid all possible sources of contamination and subsequent infections in the process of giving themselves a tattoo.

4. What kinds of reactions have been seen with tattoos?

Infected do it yourself tattoo; note pussy sores.
Infected do- it- yourself tattoo; note pussy sores.

You might notice a rash—redness or bumps—in the area of your tattoo, and you could develop a fever. Serious infections can require months of treatment with a variety of antibiotics. More virulent or aggressive infections may be associated with high fever, shaking, chills, and sweats. If these symptoms arise, you may need antibiotics, hospitalization, and/or surgery. Your physician or other health care professional will make that determination.

If you have an allergic reaction, the exact cause may be hard to pinpoint. You could have an allergic reaction to a pigment (one of the ingredients that add color to the ink) or to a diluent, (the liquid used to dilute the pigments). On the other hand, you could have a reaction to a contaminant that got into the ink during manufacturing.

In addition, because the inks are permanent, the reaction may persist.

5. If I get a tattoo and develop an infection or other reaction, what should I do?

Portia Love, M.D., is a Montgomery dermatologist.
Portia Love, M.D., is a Montgomery dermatologist.

Three things: First, contact your doctor or other health care professional.

tattoo-artist_travis-clancy_can-turkyilmaz_ts1_9794Second, notify the tattoo artist. That way he or she can identify the ink that was used, and avoid using it again. Moreover, you can ask the tattoo artist for detailed information on the brand, color, and any lot or batch information that may be useful in determining the source of the problem and how to treat it.

Third, report the problem to FDA. FDA urges consumers, tattoo artists, and even health care professionals to report tattoo-related problems to FDA. Here is how:

Provide as much detail as possible about the ink and your reaction and outcome. Reports from consumers are one of our most important sources of safety information.

 

6. What about later on, Could other problems occur?

Although research is ongoing at FDA and elsewhere, there are still a lot of questions the research has not answered yet. These include questions about the long-term effects of the pigments, other ingredients, and possible contaminants in tattoo ink.

Then there is the question of tattoo removal. We know that people have laser treatments to remove tattoos, but we do not know the short- or long-term consequences of how the pigments break down after laser treatment. However, we do know that there may be permanent scarring from some of the tattoo removal procedures.

 

7. What is the bottom line?

Think before you ink. Because of all the unknowns described above, this is not a decision to be made without careful consideration.

This is especially important because, despite advances in laser technology, removing a tattoo is a painstaking process and complete removal without scarring may be impossible.

If you do decide to get a tattoo, make sure the tattoo parlor and artist are in compliance with all state and local laws. The National Conference of State Legislatures has a Web page on state laws, statutes, and regulations governing tattooing and body piercing. For information on local regulations, contact your county or city health department.

 

A Tattoo for You? Seven Key Questions to Consider. (2016, May 3). Retrieved May 3, 2016, from FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration: http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm316357.htm?source=govdelivery&utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery#top

 

DIET AND THE CONVERSION OF WHITE FAT INTO OBESITY-FIGHTING BEIGE FAT


beige-fat-infographic
White Fat, Beige Fat, Brown Fat. Click to enlarge

At some point, fellow travelers have probably heard the term white, beige, and brown fat brought up in the topic of conversation regarding the fight against obesity. The most important single idea in the field of metabolic disease is the concept of energy balance. This means that, with the rare exception of malabsorption of nutrients, an animal cannot gain or lose weight unless there is an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure. When energy intake chronically exceeds energy expenditure, weight gain, and obesity result. This excess weight is stored in adipose tissue, which consists of fat cells, or adipocytes, which have an incredible capacity for storing surplus energy in the form of lipid. This tissue is not just a passive storage depot, but also an endocrine organ, secreting molecules like leptin that can regulate appetite and whole-body metabolism. In addition to these well-described energy-storing fat cells, adipocytes also exist that are highly effective at transforming chemical energy into heat. Brown adipocytes, which get their name from their high number of iron-containing mitochondria, are specialized to dissipate energy in the form of heat, a process called nonshivering thermogenesis. The thermogenic gene program of classical brown and beige fat cells (those brown cells that can emerge in white fat depots under certain conditions) can increase whole-body energy expenditure and therefore can protect against obesity and diabetes. This role of brown (and now beige) adipose cells in increasing whole-body metabolic rates has driven much of the interest in these cell types (Wu, Cohen, & Spiegelman, 2013).

Well, scientists at Washington State University have shown that berries, grapes, and other fruits convert excess white fat into calorie-burning beige fat, providing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

resveratrolScientists used mice in the study; the mice were fed a high-fat diet. The thin mice receiving resveratrol in amounts equal to 12 ounces of fruit per day for humans put on 40% less weight than control mice. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, one type antioxidant found in most fruits.

is_141201_red_wine_grapes_resveratrol_800x600Prior research had intimated that resveratrol aids in the prevention of obesity but the mechanism of action was unclear. Much of the research, primarily with red wine, used copious concentrations of resveratrol, a much higher concentration than an individual could consume in a normal diet.

Professor Min Du
Professor Min Du

Min Du, a professor of animal sciences at WSU, and visiting colleague, scientist Songbo Wang, made evident that mice fed 0.1% resveratrol were able to change their excess white fat into the active, energy-burning beige fat.

 

“Polyphenols in fruit, including resveratrol, increase gene expression that enhances the oxidation of dietary fats so the body won’t be overloaded,” said Du. “They convert white fat into beige fat that burns lipids¹ off as heat – helping to keep the body in balance and prevent obesity and metabolic dysfunction.”

The scientists also demonstrated that an enzyme called AMPK², which regulates the body’s energy metabolism, promotes this transition of white fat into beige fat.

Resveratrol has been lauded as a natural way to slow aging and fight cancer, heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, obesity, and diabetes. However, many of the claims are still under debate (Phillips, 2015).

Du said resveratrol is only one of the polyphenolic compounds found in fruit that provides beneficial health effects.

“We are using resveratrol as a representative for all of the polyphenols,” he said.
“We are still using it as a pure compound to be consistent with the study that came out 20 years ago in the medical journal, The Lancet, showing that resveratrol in wine has beneficial effects.

“In reality, it’s the total polyphenolic content that is more important,” he said. “We think you can increase your total intake of polyphenol compounds by directly increasing fruit consumption.”

11264613_1425607281082510_56633673_nDu said those compounds are found in all fruits but are especially rich in blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, grapes, and apples. Twelve ounces is about two or three servings per day.

Wines like merlot or cabernet sauvignon, in contrast, contain only a fraction of resveratrol and other phenolic compounds found in grapes, he said.

“Many of the beneficial polyphenols are insoluble and get filtered out during the wine production process,” he said.

For consumers who want to add fiber and these bioactive compounds to their diet, it’s much better to eat the whole fruit, he said.

fatty acid greenResearchers had always assumed there were only two types of fat, said Du – white fat where lipids are stored as energy and brown fat that burns lipids to produce heat.

Several years ago, scientists discovered beige fat, which is in between white and brown fat. Du said beige fat is generated from white fat in a process called “browning.”

“Resveratrol can enhance this conversion of white fat to beige fat and, when you have high rates of browning, it can partially prevent obesity,” he said.

In the study, adult female mice were fed a high-fat diet. Those supplemented with resveratrol were 40 percent less likely to develop diet-induced obesity compared to control mice that gained weight (Phillips, 2015).

Du said white fat is protective when it’s healthy. But too much leads to imbalance and disease.

“The current theory is that when we eat excessively, the extra lipids are stored in white fat. With obesity, the fat cells enlarge to a point where they’re saturated and can’t uptake more lipids,” he said. “As the fat cells become overloaded and die, they release toxins and cause inflammation leading to health problems like insulin resistance and diabetes.

“Polyphenols like resveratrol are good as they enhance the oxidation of fat so it won’t be overloaded. The excess is burned off as heat,” he said.

The study was recently published in the International Journal of Obesity. It was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and an Emerging Research Issues Internal Competitive Grant from the WSU College of Agriculture, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences. None of the funders had a role in the interpretation of the results.


[1] Lipids are a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others.

Lipid – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipid

[2] 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis. It consists of three proteins (subunits) that together make a functional enzyme, conserved from yeast to humans.

AMP-activated protein kinase – Wikipedia, the free …

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AMP-activated_protein_kinase


 

Phillips, R. (2015, June 18). WSU scientists turn white fat into obesity-fighting beige fat. Retrieved April 28, 2016, from WSU NEWS: https://news.wsu.edu/2015/06/18/wsu-scientists-turn-white-fat-into-obesity-fighting-beige-fat/

 

Wu, J., Cohen, P., & Spiegelman, B. (2013, February 1). Adaptive thermogenesis in adipocytes: Is beige the new brown? doi:10.1101/gad.211649.112

 

 

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.