Category Archives: Health

EXERCISING ON THE CHEAP


What is one of the simplest and least expensive ways to improve heart function? Walking.

 

Walking is one of the least expensive exercises an individual can do; just put on a pair of sneakers and you are ready to go. It is also one of the most convenient of exercises. Walking can be accomplished just about anywhere, making it a popular favorite. The health benefits of walking are many. Brisk, consistent walking is an effective way to lower blood pressure and keep diabetes and bay, both of which in turn lower heart disease risk. Two expansive, long-term Harvard studies conjure that walking for about 20 minutes a day may cut your risk of heart disease by as much as 30%.

 

f53a0a6f4aed201338212558cf6133e3Some people still need that proverbial kick in the pants to start and stick with a walking program. One of the best ways is to find walking buddies, says Dr. Lauren Elson, physical medicine and rehabilitation instructor at Harvard Medical School. “I find that if I can get someone to walk with a partner—a spouse or a friend—that helps a lot.” Even better is getting several friends to walk together because they all hold each other accountable. “They call each other up and say, ‘Where are you?'” Dr. Elson says. For additional suggestions for group walking opportunities, see the websites of the American Heart Association (www.health.harvard.edu/walking-clubs) and Walk with a Doc (www.walkwithadoc.org).

 

pedometer-004Other people find motivation by using a pedometer to track their steps and distance, says Dr. Elson, who is also the medical editor of the Harvard Special Health Report Walking for Health (www.health.harvard.edu/walk). One study of 26 determined that people who used pedometers increased physical activity levels by nearly 27%, amounting to about 2,500 steps a day. Many stores that sell exercise equipment have inexpensive pedometers. With a smartphone, you can download a pedometer app such as Moves, Breeze, or Pedometer++.

 

If you use a pedometer, track your steps from morning until night. Take the average of your total steps for two or three days aiming to increase your daily total by about 1,000 to 2,000 steps. Increase your steps by the same amounts until you reach at least 10,000 steps per day.

 

If you have been whammed by a heart attack or been diagnosed with heart disease, walking is the perfect exercise; you can easily adjust your routine in conjunction with your fitness level. If you have heart failure, seek a cardiac rehabilitation program recommended by your Dr.

 

largeWhether you start a walking program on your own or with supervision, plan to start slowly and work gradually toward better fitness—, and follow these safety tips:

  • Always warm up with five minutes of easy walking to prepare your muscles and heart for exercise. At the end, cool down by slowing your pace.
  • Do not push through fatigue. If you feel tired or have any heart symptoms, stop.
  • Walk in an indoor shopping mall if it is too cold, too snowy, or too hot to exercise outdoors. Ask your doctor if you should take any additional precautions.

 

Therefore, my fellow travelers, couch potatoes one and all, what is left to say? If one has not been exercising, the eight-week workout is a sure bet. You will increase the time you are walking and work up to 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week as well.  And so we’re on the same page, brisk walking is defined as walking as if you are in a bit of a hurry. Breathing rate should increase, but you can still talk in a full sentence that is if you are not functionally illiterate. Finally, good posture means good health; stand tall with your head up, shoulders down and back, and flabby abdominal muscles tight.

 

Get started walking

This eight-week program will take your walking from just 10 minutes a day up to 30 minutes, allowing you to build up gradually.

 
Week Sessions per week Warm-up (time and pace) Walking (time and pace) Cool-down (time and pace) Daily total Weekly total
                     
1 7 3 minutes slow 5 minutes moderate 2 minutes slow 10 minutes 70 minutes
2 7 3 minutes slow 10 minutes moderate 2 minutes slow 15 minutes 105 minutes
3 6 3 minutes slow 15 minutes moderate 2 minutes slow 20 minutes 120 minutes
4 6 5 minutes slow 5 minutes moderate,
5 minutes brisk, 5 minutes moderate
 

 

 

2 minutes slow 20 minutes 120 minutes
5 6 3 minutes slow 5 minutes moderate,
10 minutes brisk, 5 minutes moderate
 

 

 

2 minutes slow 25 minutes 150 minutes
6 6 5 minutes slow to moderate  

 

12 minutes brisk,
3 minutes moderate
5 minutes slow 25 minutes 150 minutes
7 6 5 minutes slow to moderate  

 

15 minutes brisk 5 minutes moderate to slow 25 minutes 150 minutes
8 5 5 minutes slow to moderate  

 

20 minutes brisk 5 minutes moderate to slow 30 minutes 150 minutes

 

 

Marching orders: How to start a walking program. (2015, November). Retrieved from Harvard Health Publications HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL: http://www.health.harvard.edu/heart-health/marching-orders-how-to-start-a-walking-program

 

 

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Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
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“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

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WHAT IS THE OUTLOOK OF EXTENDING THE HUMAN LIFESPAN?


A study published online today in Nature by Albert Einstein College of Medicine scientists suggests that it may not be possible to extend the human lifespan beyond the ages already attained by the oldest people on record.

Since the 19th century, average life expectancy has risen almost continuously thanks to improvements in public health, diet, the environment, and other areas. On average, for example, U.S. babies born today can expect to live nearly until age 79 compared with an average life expectancy of only 47 for Americans born in 1900. Since the 1970s, the maximum duration of life—the age of which the oldest people live—has also risen. However, according to the Einstein researchers, this upward arc for maximal lifespan has a ceiling—and we’ve already touched it.

“Demographers, as well as biologists, have contended there is no reason to think that the ongoing increase in maximum lifespan will end soon,” said senior author Jan Vijg, Ph.D., professor, and chair of genetics, the Lola and Saul Kramer Chair in Molecular Genetics, and professor of ophthalmology & visual sciences at Einstein. “But our data strongly suggest that it has already been attained and that this happened in the 1990s.”

Dr. Vijg and his colleagues analyzed data from the Human Mortality Database, which compiles mortality and population data from more than 40 countries. Since 1900, those countries generally show a decline in late-life mortality: The fraction of each birth cohort (i.e., people born in a particular year) who survive to old age (defined as 70 and up) increased with their calendar year of birth, pointing toward a continuing increase in average life expectancy.

Nevertheless, when the researchers looked at survival improvements since 1900 for people aged 100 and above, they found that gains in survival peaked at around 100 and then declined rapidly, regardless of the year people were born. “This finding indicates diminishing gains in reducing late-life mortality and a possible limit to human lifespan,” said Dr. Vijg.

He and his colleagues then looked at “maximum reported age at death” data from the International Database on Longevity. They focused on people verified as living to age 110 or older between 1968 and 2006 in the four countries (the U.S., France, Japan, and the U.K.) with the largest number of long-lived individuals. Age at death for these supercentenarians increased rapidly between the 1970s and early 1990s but reached a plateau around 1995—further evidence for a lifespan limit. This plateau, the researchers note, occurred close to 1997—the year of death of 122-year-old French woman Jeanne Calment, who achieved the maximum documented lifespan of any person in history.

Using maximum-reported-age-at-death data, the Einstein researchers put the average maximum human life span at 115 years—a calculation allowing for record-oldest individuals occasionally living longer or shorter than 115 years. (Jeanne Calment, they concluded, was a statistical outlier.) Finally, the researchers calculated 125 years as the absolute limit of the human lifespan. Expressed another way, this means that the probability in a given year of seeing one person live to 125 anywhere in the world is less than 1 in 10,000.

“Further progress against infectious and chronic diseases may continue boosting average life expectancy, but not maximum lifespan,” said Dr. Vijg. “While it’s conceivable that therapeutic breakthroughs might extend human longevity beyond the limits we’ve calculated, such advances would need to overwhelm the many genetic variants that appear to collectively determine the human lifespan. Perhaps resources now being spent to increase lifespan should instead go to lengthening health span—the duration of an old age spent in good health.”

Explore further:  Global life expectancy up five years since 2000: WHO

More information:  Naturenature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nature19793

Journal reference:  Nature  

Provided by:  Albert Einstein College of Medicine  

OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY STATISTICS


 

About Overweight and Obesity

This publication describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States.

  • Overweight refers to an excess amount of body weight that may come from muscles, bone, fat, and water.1
  • Obesity refers to an excess amount of body fat.1

Fast Facts

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010 2, 3

  • More than 2 in 3 adults are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • More than 1 in 3 adults are considered to be obese.
  • More than 1 in 20 adults are considered to have extreme obesity.
  • About one-third of children and adolescents ages 6 to 19 are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • More than 1 in 6 children and adolescents ages 6 to 19 are considered to be obese.

Using Body Mass Index (BMI) to Estimate Overweight and Obesity

The BMI is the tool most commonly used to estimate overweight and obesity in children and adults.

BMI of Adults Age 20 and Older
BMI Classifcation
18.5 to 24.9 Normal weight
25 to 29.9 Overweight
30 + Obesity
40 + Extreme obesity

For adults, overweight and obesity ranges are measured by using weight and height to compute the person’s BMI. The BMI is used because, for most people, it correlates with the amount of fat in their bodies. An online tool for gauging the BMIs of adults can be found at:http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/adult_BMI/english_bmi_calculator/bmi_calculator.htmlExternal Link Disclaimer

BMI of Children and Adolescents Ages 2 – 19
BMI Classification
At or above the 85th percentile Overweight or obese
At or above the 95th percentile Obese

Children grow at different rates at different times, so it is not always easy to tell if a child is overweight. BMI charts for children compare their height and weight to other children of their same sex and age. An online tool for guaging the BMIs of children and teens can be found at: http://nccd.cdc.gov/dnpabmi/Calculator.aspxExternal Link Disclaimer

Causes of Overweight and Obesity

Overweight and obesity result from an energy imbalance. The body needs a certain amount of energy (calories) from food to keep up basic life functions. Body weight tends to remain the same when the number of calories eaten equals the number of calories the body uses or “burns.” Over time, when people eat and drink more calories than they burn, the energy balance tips toward weight gain, overweight, and obesity.

Children need to balance their energy, too, but they are also growing and that should be considered as well. Energy balance in children happens when the amount of energy taken in from food or drink and the energy being used by the body support natural growth without promoting excess weight gain.

Many factors can lead to energy imbalance and weight gain. They include genes, eating habits, how and where people live, attitudes and emotions, life habits, and income.1

Treatment of Overweight and Obesity

Overweight and obesity are risk factors for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and other health problems such as those listed below.

Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity
  • type 2 diabetes
  • heart disease
  • high blood pressure
  • nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (excess fat and inflammation in the liver of people who drink little or no alcohol)
  • osteoarthritis (a health problem causing pain, swelling, and stiffness in one or more joints)
  • some types of cancer: breast, colon, endometrial (related to the uterine lining), and kidney
  • stroke

There is no single cause of all overweight and obesity. There is no single approach that can help prevent or treat overweight and obesity. Treatment may include a mix of behavioral treatment, diet, exercise, and sometimes weight-loss drugs. In some cases of extreme obesity, weight-loss surgery may be an option.1


Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

The data presented in this publication are from two surveys conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)2,3 and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).4

Adults Age 20 and Older2
  • More than two-thirds (68.8 percent) of adults are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • More than one-third (35.7 percent) of adults are considered to be obese.
  • More than 1 in 20 (6.3 percent) have extreme obesity.
  • Almost 3 in 4 men (74 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • The prevalence of obesity is similar for both men and women (about 36 percent).
  • About 8 percent of women are considered to have extreme obesity.

Overweight and Obesity among Adults Age 20 and Older, United States, 2009–2010

Estimated Percentage by BMI


 Normal weight or underweight (BMI under 24.9)
 Overweight (BMI of 25 to 29.9)
 Obesity (BMI of 30+)
 Extreme obesity (BMI of 40+)

According to the pie graph, 31.2 percent of adults had BMIs under 24.9 and so were considered normal weight or underweight. Another 33.1 percent had BMIs from 25 to 29.9, and so they were considered overweight. The group with BMIs of 30 or higher—people considered to have obesity—amounted to 35.7 percent. Those considered to have extreme obesity, with BMIs of 40 or higher, amounted to 6.3 percent.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Estimated Percentage by Sex


 Men  Women

According to the bar graph, 74 percent of men had overweight or obesity; 64 percent of women had overweight or obesity. Equal percentages (36) of men and women had obesity. Among men, 4 percent had extreme obesity; the percentage among women was double that of men, at 8 percent.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Different Racial and Ethnic Groups—Adults*
Among Hispanic, black, and white adults age 20 and older: 2

  • Overweight and obesity affect more than 3 in 4 Hispanics (78.8 percent) and blacks (76.7 percent).
  • About 2 in 3 whites (66.7 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • About half of blacks (49.5 percent), and more than 1 in 3 Hispanics (39.1 percent) and whites (34.3 percent) are considered to be obese.
  • Extreme obesity affects more than 1 in 10 blacks (13.1 percent), and about 1 in 20 whites (5.7 percent) and Hispanics (5 percent).

Rates of obesity among Asian Americans are much lower than among other racial and ethnic groups. The following are general prevalence estimates from the 2010 NHIS for adults age 18 and older in these groups who reported being of one race.4

  • Asian Americans: 11.6 percent
  • American Indians and Alaska Natives: 39.9 percent
  • Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders: 43.5 percent

† This estimate is based on a small number of respondents (n = 284) in the category of Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders; relative standard error is greater than 30 percent and less than or equal to 50 percent.

Overweight and Obesity among Adults Age 20 and Older, United States, 2009–2010

Estimated Percentage by Race/Ethnicity*


 Overweight or Obesity  Obesity  Extreme obesity

According to the bar graph, among white people, 66.7 percent were considered overweight or obese, 34.3 percent were considered obese, and 5.7. percent were considered to have extreme obesity. Among black people, 76.7 percent were considered overweight or obese, 49.5 percent were considered obese, and 13.1 percent were considered to have extreme obesity. Among Hispanic people, 78.8 percent were considered overweight or obese, 39.1 percent were considered obese, and 5 percent were considered to have extreme obesity. Among adults in the United States in all racial categories, 68.8 percent were considered overweight or obese, 35.7 percent were considered obese, and 6.3 percent were considered to have extreme obesity.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Estimated Percentage of Youth with Overweight or Obesity, United States, 2009–2011

Children and Adolescents 3
Young children ages 2 to 5 have a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity than older youth.
Among young people ages 2 to 19:

  • About 31.8 percent are considered to be either overweight or obese, and 16.9 percent are considered to be obese.
  • About 1 in 3 boys (33 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese, compared with 30.4 percent of girls.
  • About 18.6 percent of boys and 15 percent of girls are considered to be obese.

Among children and adolescents ages 6 to 19:

  • Almost 1 in 3 (33.2 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese, and 18.2 percent are considered to be obese.
  • More than 2 in 5 black and Hispanic youth (more than 41 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese.*
  • About 25.7 percent of black, 22.9 percent of Hispanic, and 15.2 percent of white youth are considered to be obese.*

Percentage by Age Group, Ages 2–19


 Overweight or Obesity  Obesity

According to the bar graph, among people ages 2–5, 26.7 percent had overweight or obesity, and 12.1 percent had obesity. Among people ages 6–11, 32.6 percent had overweight or obesity, and 18 percent had obesity. Among people ages 12–19, 33.6 percent had overweight or obesity, and 18.4 percent had obesity.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Percentage by Sex, Ages 2–19


 Overweight or Obesity  Obesity

According to the bar graph, among girls, 30.4 percent had overweight or obesity, and 15 percent had obesity. Among boys, 33 percent had overweight or obesity, and 18.6 percent had obesity. Across youth of both sexes, 31.8 percent had overweight or obesity, and 16.9 percent had obesity.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Percentage by Race/Ethnicity, Ages 6–19*


 Overweight or Obesity  Obesity

According to the bar graph, among white youth, 29 percent had overweight or obesity, and 15.2 percent had obesity. Among black youth, 41.8 percent had overweight or obesity, and 25.7 percent had obesity. Among Hispanic youth, 41.2 percent had overweight or obesity, and 22.9 percent had obesity. Across youth ages 6 to 19 of all races, 33.2 percent had overweight or obesity, and 18.2 percent had obesity.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Trends in Overweight and Obesity among Adults, United States, 1962–2010**

Changes over Time*

  • Since the early 1960s, the prevalence of obesity among adults more than doubled, increasing from 13.4 to 35.7 percent in U.S. adults age 20 and older. 2, 5
  • Obesity prevalence remained mostly stable from 1999 to 2010, but has increased slightly, yet in a statistically significant way, among men overall, as well as among black women and Mexican American women. 2
  • Among children and adolescents, the prevalence of obesity also increased in the 1980s and 1990s but is now mostly stable at about 17 percent. 3

*”Blacks” refers to non-Hispanic blacks, and “whites” refers to non-Hispanic whites.


 Overweight  Obesity  Extreme obesity

According to the graph, as of 1962, about 46 percent of adults in the United States fell into the categories of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity. About 32 percent of adults were overweight, about 13 percent were obese, and about 1 percent had extreme obesity.

Percentages of adults within all of these categories increased gradually until the late 1970s, at which point they began to climb more quickly, leveling off somewhat around 2000. The increase was most dramatic within the obesity category, while the percentage of overweight adults held fairly steady, and the percentage of adults with extreme obesity increased moderately. Around 2000, about 70 percent of adults were considered overweight, obese, or extremely obese. Of this group, 34 percent were considered overweight, about 31 percent were considered obese, and about 5 percent were considered to have extreme obesity.

By 2010, the percentage of adults considered overweight, obese, or extremely obese had climbed to about 75. About 33 percent were considered overweight, about 36 percent were considered obese, and about 6 percent were considered extremely obesese.

Source: Ogden & Carroll, 2010; Flegal et al., 2012

**Data for 1960–1980 are for adults ages 20 to 74; data for 1988–2010 are for adults age 20 and older


Physical Activity Statistics

Adults

Research Findings

  • Research suggests that staying active may lower a person’s chance of getting heart disease, stroke, some cancers, type 2 diabetes, and other conditions.
  • Researchers believe that some physical activity is better than none. Extra health benefits can be gained by increasing how often and intensely one exercises and how long each session lasts.

Government guidelines recommend that healthy adults take part in aerobic activity of moderate intensity for at least 150 minutes a week or vigorous intensity for 75 minutes a week.6 Aerobic activity uses large muscles such as the legs and back and makes the heart beat faster. In addition, the guidelines recommend that people do activities that strengthen muscles (such as weight training or push-ups) at least twice a week.

Some studies measure physical activity by people’s self-report of what they do. Other studies use a tool that records movement as it occurs. Researchers consider the studies using tools to be more accurate. A study conducted in 2003–2004 that used this type of tool to measure physical activity found that only about 3 to 5 percent of adults meet these recommendations.7

Children and Adolescent

The physical activity guidelines also recommend that children and youth get at least 60 minutes of physical activity daily.

Research Findings

Findings from a study 7 conducted in 2003–2004 that measured physical activity using a tool that records movement suggest the following:

  • In the age group of 6 to 11, almost half of boys (49 percent) and about a third of girls (35 percent) get the recommended amount of physical activity.
  • Physical activity declines with age. While 42 percent of children ages 6 to 11 get 60 minutes a day of physical activity, only about 8 percent of adolescents ages 12 to 15 reach this goal.

At all ages, girls have lower levels of physical activity than boys.

Children and Adolescents Ages 6–19 Getting at Least 60 Minutes per Day of Physical Activity, United States, 2003–2004

 All      Boys      Girls

The bar graph presents percentages for different age ranges, and it shows percentages of boys, girls, and all children within the ranges doing 60 minutes or more of daily physical activity. The leftmost part of the graph shows data on children ages 6–11. For children in that age range, 42 percent were getting at least 60 minutes of physical activity per day. Among boys, 48.9 percent were getting 60 minutes or more of daily physical activity, and among girls, the proportion was 34.7 percent. The middle of the graph shows data on youth ages 12–15. For youth within this age range, 8 percent were getting at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day. Among boys, the percentage was 11.9, and among girls, the percentage was 3.4. The right part of the graph shows percentages for youth ages 16–19. For youth within this age range, 7.6 percent were getting at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day. Among boys, 10 percent were doing 60 minutes or more of daily physical activity, and among girls, 5.4 percent were doing 60 minutes or more of physical activity each day. In general, many more young children than older ones were doing at least 60 minutes of physical activity daily.

Source: Troiano et al., 2008


References

  1. National Institutes of Health. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: The evidence report. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; September 1998. NIH Publication No. 98–4083. Available online:http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/guidelines/archive/clinical-guidelines-obesity-adults-evidence-reportExternal NIH Link
  2. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2012; 307(5):491–97. Available online:http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1104933External Link Disclaimer
  3. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999–2010. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2012; 307(5):483–90. Available online:http://jama.jamanetwork.com/Mobile/article.aspx?articleid=1104932External Link Disclaimer
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Vital and Health Statistics 10(252); 2012. Available online:http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_252.pdf [PDF – 3.8 Mb]External Link Disclaimer
  5. Ogden CL, Carroll MD. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960–1962 through 2007–2008. NCHS Health E-Stat. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2010. Available online:http://www.cdc.gov/NCHS/data/hestat/obesity_adult_07_08/obesity_adult_07_08.pdf [PDF – 202.5 Kb]External Link Disclaimer
  6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. ODPHP Publication No. U0036. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available online: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/External Link Disclaimer
  7. Troiano RP, Berrigan D, Dodd KW, Mâsse LC, Tilert T, McDowell M. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2008;40(1):181–188. Available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18091006External NIH Link

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Clinical Trials

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research into many diseases and conditions.

What are clinical trials, and are they right for you?
Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for youExternal NIH Link.

What clinical trials are open?
Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.govExternal Link Disclaimer.


Resources

Additional Reading from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Adults: United States, 2005–2008 
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db50.htmExternal Link Disclaimer

Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Children and Adolescents: United States, 2005–2008
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db51.htmExternal Link Disclaimer

Prevalence of Obesity in the United States, 2009–2010
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db82.htmExternal Link Disclaimer



This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

The NIDDK would like to thank:
Cheryl Fryar, M.S.P.H., and Cynthia Ogden, Ph.D., M.R.P., both of the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for reviewing this fact sheet.

This information is not copyrighted. The NIDDK encourages people to share this content freely.



INCONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE, THE BENEFITS OF A PALEO DIET IN MODERATING TYPE 2 DIABETES


One of the tenants of the noted Paleolithic diet concentrates its aims on avoiding refined sugars and processed food, but scientific evidence from research about any beneficial effect for people living with type 2 diabetes is unresolved at this point, according to a Perspective published online by the Medical Journal of Australia.

download
Associate Professor Sofianos Andrikopoulos from the University of Melbourne

Associate Professor Sofianos Andrikopoulos from the University of Melbourne noted that in its most basic form, the Paleo diet’s concentration on fresh foods seems compatible with dietary guidelines worldwide.

“However, what constitutes a Paleolithic diet is often skewed by individual interpretation or bias. This lack of a standard definition further complicates research evidence for or against this dietary approach and is often supported by individual self-reported benefits on health and wellbeing in popular social media channels.” Notwithstanding the enthusiasm shown for the Paleo diet, there is the dearth of adequate scientific trials investigating the effect of the diet on people with diabetes.

However, a Swedish study discovered that the Paleo diet achieved a lower value of body mass index and glycated hemoglobin levels (The A1C test is a blood test that provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, LEM1103abnormal286over the past 3 months. The A1C test is sometimes called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, or glycohemoglobin test.) The comparison was made against a diabetes diet for obese patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Associate Professor Andrikopoulos concluded that the study was not of enough breath to determine any long-term benefit.

“These small and short-term studies tend to indicate some benefit but do not convincingly show that a Paleolithic diet is effective for weight loss and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes,” he wrote.

Study on a healthy, research group of average weight put on a Paleo diet for 10 days showed a static response to fasting plasma glucose (insulin) levels. It did find reduced plasma lipid levels and blood pressure compared with the usual baseline diet.

MetaSynd_flatAnother 2-week study on obese patients with metabolic syndrome (a cluster of biochemical and physiological abnormalities associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes) found no effect on glucose tolerance (how well your body’s cells are able to absorb glucose or sugar). The study did reveal that the group had reduced blood pressure and plasma lipid levels, which was associated with a small decrease in weight.

In summation, Associate Professor Andrikopoulos stated; “given that even very short deficits in energy balance can improve metabolic parameters, it is difficult to make strong conclusions about the long-term benefits of the Paleolithic diet in type 2 diabetes (or any other condition), because of the short duration of the interventions (less than 12 weeks), the lack of a proper control group in some instances, and the small sample size (less than 20 individuals) of the above studies”.

Article: The Paleo diet and diabetes, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Medical Journal of Australia, doi: 10.5694/mja16.00347, published 8 August 2016.

Source: Australian Medical Association (AMA)

 

 

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

ELEVATED CAFFEINE LEVELS COULD TRIGGER HEART ARRHYTHMIAS!


 

Once again fellow travelers we are warned against imbibing caffeine to excess. The elevated levels of caffeine and energy drinks may lead to cardiac problems; this coming from a case study a report in the July/August Journal of Addiction Medicine, at the official journal of the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM). Wolters Kluwer publishes the journal.

 

Sattari_Maryam_Sattari_18927
Maryam Sattari, M.D.

The case study adds to prior reports of unfavorable cardiovascular events related to the consumption of energy drinks, including abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias). The lead author is one Dr. Maryam Sattari of University of Florida, Gainesville.

 

The case study involves a 28-year-old man seen in the emergency department after developing vomiting with blood. Upon examination, the only abnormality, other than obesity, was a very fast heart rate–about 130 beats per minute.

 

Afib-Feels-Like-AdAn electrocardiogram uncovered an abnormal heart rhythm called atrial fibrillation, the rapid, irregular, and unsynchronized contraction of the muscle fibers of the upper chambers of the heart. This is a common type of arrhythmia and it can lead to serious complications if sustained. Further testing showed no other heart problems.

 

This individual said he routinely drank two Monster energy drinks per day, for a total caffeine content of 320 mg, along with two or three beers. No other common causes of his heart rhythm abnormality were apparent.

 

Pills in hand, close-up, isolated on white background

With the administration of medications, the atrial fibrillation resolved over 48 hours. An endoscopy was performed, related to the vomiting of blood, showing a tear of the stomach and esophagus. Forceful vomiting probably caused this. The individual was finally sent home in stable condition. A one-year’s follow-up exam uncovered no further symptoms of active arrhythmia.

 

Although several factors might have contributed to the patient’s atrial fibrillation, Dr. Sattari and colleagues write, “We believe that energy drink consumption played a key role.” They point out the 160 mg caffeine content of a Monster energy drink is about four times higher than in a caffeinated soft drink (The caffeine content of coffee drinks varies widely, but may be even higher).

 

A review of the medical research identified at least eight cases of cardiovascular events linked to energy drinks, such as Monster or Red Bull. The researchers discuss several mechanisms by which the high caffeine content of these products might lead to cardiovascular events. These include other ingredients, such as taurine, that might heighten the effects of caffeine; using energy drinks along with alcohol or illicit drugs; or high-stress levels.

 

Energy-DrinksEnergy drinks have become increasingly popular in recent years, especially among adolescents and young adults. Marketed as “nutritional supplements,” these beverages are not subject to the caffeine limits on soft drinks, or to the safety testing and labeling required for medications

.

This and previous reports are “suggestive but not conclusive” that the caffeine in energy drinks may cause abnormal heart rhythms and other cardiac complications. “We suggest that arrhythmia could be a complication of energy drink consumption,” Dr. Sattari and coauthors write. They encourage health care providers to ask about energy drink intake in otherwise healthy young patients with unexplained arrhythmias.

 

Hughes, C. (2016, August 2). Cardiac Complications from Energy Drinks? Case Report Adds New Evidence at. Retrieved August 2, 2016, from Newswise: http://www.newswise.com/articles/cardiac-complications-from-energy-drinks-case-report-adds-new-evidence

 

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.


A WISE MOVE WHEN ORDERING OUT


2015102223335974677Want to cut calories by making more healthful meal choices? Try avoiding unhealthy impulse buying tough by ordering meals at least an hour before eating. New findings from researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Carnegie Mellon University show that people choose higher-calorie meals when ordering immediately before eating, and lower-calorie meals when orders are placed an hour or more ahead of time. The results, which have significance for addressing the nation’s obesity epidemic, are published in the Journal of Marketing Research.

eric-van-epps-retreat.0.9.235.276.100.120.c
Eric M. VanEpps, Ph.D.

“Our results show that ordering meals when you’re already hungry and ready to eat leads to an overall increase in the number of calories ordered and suggest that by ordering meals in advance, the likelihood of making indulgent purchases is drastically reduced;” said lead author Eric M. VanEpps, Ph.D., a postdoctoral researcher at the Penn Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics, who conducted the studies while a graduate student at Carnegie Mellon. “The implication is that restaurants and other food providers can generate health benefits for their customers by offering the opportunity to place advance orders.”

Researchers conducted two field studies examining online lunch orders of 690 employees using an onsite corporate cafeteria, and a third study with 195 university students selecting among catered lunch options. Across all three studies, the researchers noted that meals with higher calorie content were ordered and consumed when there were shorter (or no) waiting periods between ordering and eating.

The first study was a secondary data analysis of over 1,000 orders that could be placed anytime after 7 a.m. to be picked up between 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. The second study randomly assigned participants to place orders before 10 a.m. or after 11 a.m. The third study randomly assigned university students to order lunch before or after class, with lunches provided immediately after class.

In the first study, VanEpps and colleagues from Carnegie Mellon University found that for every hour of delay between when the order was placed and the food was ready (average delay of 105 minutes), there was a decrease of approximately 38 calories in the items ordered. In the second study, the researchers found that those who placed orders in advance, with an average delay of 168 minutes, had an average reduction of 30 calories (568 vs. 598) compared to those who ordered closer to lunchtime (with an average delay of 42 minutes between ordering and eating). The third study showed that students who placed orders in advance ordered significantly fewer calories (an average of 890 calories) compared to those who ordered at lunchtime (an average of 999 calories).

In all three studies, lower caloric totals were generally not confined to any specific population groups. Failure to eat breakfast did not emerge as a factor in the observed effect of time delay on total lunch calories, nor were there any observed differences in meal satisfaction between meals ordered in advance and those ordered for immediate consumption.

george-loewenstein-headshot.614.0.2221.2613.100.120.c
George Loewenstein, Ph.D.

“These findings provide one more piece of evidence that decisions made in the heat of the moment are not as far-sighted as those made in advance,” said George Loewenstein, Ph.D., the Herbert A. Simon University Professor of Economics and Psychology at Carnegie Mellon, and senior author on the study. “For example, people who plan to practice safe sex often fail to do so when caught up in the act, and people who, in dispassionate moments, recognize the stupidity of road rage nevertheless regularly succumb to it. Unfortunately, pre-commitment strategies are more feasible when it comes to diet than to many other hot behaviors.”

Based on findings from other studies, VanEpps says there is a potential concern that people who cut calories in one meal might “make up” for the calorie reductions later, whether at dinner or via snacking, though there is little evidence that participants in these studies were aware that lunches ordered in advance had fewer calories. The authors suggest future research in the form of longitudinal studies that measure eating decisions over a longer period would be useful in addressing this issue. In addition, because the two employee workplace studies provided discounted food and the university-based study provided free food, future research examining analogous situations where participants pay full price for their meals would be beneficial.

Funding for the study was provided by Lowenstein’s personal research funds.

Penn Medicine is one of the world’s leading academic medical centers, dedicated to the related missions of medical education, biomedical research, and excellence in patient care. Penn Medicine consists of the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (founded in 1765 as the nation’s first medical school) and the University of Pennsylvania Health System, which together form a $5.3 billion enterprise.

The Perelman School of Medicine has been ranked among the top five medical schools in the United States for the past 18 years, according to U.S. News & World Report‘s survey of research-oriented medical schools. The School is consistent among the nation’s top recipients of funding from the National Institutes of Health, with $373 million awarded in the 2015 fiscal year.

The University of Pennsylvania Health System’s patient care facilities include: The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and Penn Presbyterian Medical Center — which are recognized as one of the nation’s top “Honor Roll” hospitals by U.S. News & World Report — Chester County Hospital; Lancaster General Health; Penn Wissahickon Hospice; and Pennsylvania Hospital — the nation’s first hospital, founded in 1751. Additional affiliated inpatient care facilities and services throughout the Philadelphia region include Chestnut Hill Hospital and Good Shepherd Penn Partners, a partnership between Good Shepherd Rehabilitation Network and Penn Medicine.

Penn Medicine is committed to improving lives and health through a variety of community-based programs and activities. In the fiscal year 2015, Penn Medicine provided $253.3 million to benefit our community.

Delach, K. (2016, July 19). Want to Cut Calories? New Studies Suggest Placing Orders Before It’s Time to Eat. Retrieved July 26, 2016, from Penn Medicine: http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/news/News_Releases/2016/07/vanepps/

Citations

Journal of Marketing Research

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

HEALTHFUL CONVENIENCE FOODS


Prepackaged, prepared foods take many forms:  boxed, dry goods such as quick-cook pasta and rice mixes; canned foods, such as soup or ravioli; or frozen foods, such as a single frozen dinner or a “family-sized” lasagna.

All of these are usually loaded with calories salt, saturated and trans fats, sugar, refined carbohydrates, additives, and preservatives. “It’s not the worst thing if you eat this kind of fast food once in a great while, but if you start eating a lot of it, it can lead to weight gain and the health risks that come with it, such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease,” says McManus.

And don’t think that take-out food is the answer, either. “Food ‘to go’ has the same problem. It’s quick and it’s hot, but it’s probably salty, fatty, and very high in calories,” says McManus.

To find the more healthful convenience foods takes a bit of sleuthing on everyone’s part.  Start with ingredient lists. “The fewer ingredients, the better, and make sure that real foods are on the list, whether it’s meat or vegetables,” says McManus. If there’s any added sugar, it should be one of the last ingredients, since ingredients are listed in order of quantity.

Next stop: the Nutrition Facts label. McManus recommends looking at the label and choosing entrees with serving sizes that provide 600 or fewer calories; 5 or more grams of fiber; 500 or fewer milligrams of sodium; zero grams of trans fat; 5 or fewer grams of saturated fat; and zero grams of sugar. (See “What to look for in a healthy prepared entrée.”)

 

What to look for in a healthy prepared entrée
The label says… Look for…
Calories 600 or less
Fiber 5 grams or more
Sodium 500 milligrams or less
Trans fat 0 grams
Saturated fat 5 grams or less
Sugar 0 grams

 

Now, to fill up the cart with healthful convenience foods like dried foods, such as whole-grain cereals (shredded wheat or rolled oats); frozen or canned vegetables (without added salt); canned tuna or salmon; some frozen fish or shrimp; and some frozen entrees, usually from companies that promote the fact that they use organic ingredients. It won’t take long to microwave a fish fillet and open a can of green beans, or heat up a nutritious frozen dinner.

 

 

Healthier meals on the go. (2016, January). Retrieved July 25, 2016, from Harvard Health Publications Harvard Medical School: http://www.health.harvard.edu/healthy-eating/healthier-meals-on-the-go?utm_source=delivra&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=GB20160725-HEDiabetes&utm_id=207105&mid=21239452&ml=207105

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.