Category Archives: saturated fat

THE IMPORTANCE OF SOLUBLE FIBER IN YOUR DIET Vol. 1 No. 68


shortlit2Most investigators into the causes of obesity believe that eating too much high fat, high-calorie food is the primary cause of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including diabetes. The excess calories consumed directly causes fat accumulation; scientists believe that a low-grade inflammation due to an altered gut microbiome (A microbial biome, such as the community of microbes within the human gut.) may also be involved. A new study published in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology finds in mice lacking soluble fiber encourages inflammation in the intestines and poor gut health, inducing weight gain. On the other hand, introducing soluble fiber into the diet can restore gut health.

“The gut microbiota is a community of bacteria and other microorganisms that live in the intestines. Microbiota also exists elsewhere on the body, including the skin and mouth. The gut microbiota has an important role in maintaining intestinal health and functions, including helping the body digest food, producing vitamins and fighting foreign microorganisms. Changes to the gut microbiota have been linked to the development of gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity.” (Brooks, 2015)

Soluble vs. insoluble fiberThere are two different types of fiber — soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases.

  • Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in oat bran, barley, nuts, seeds, beans, lentils, peas, and some fruits and vegetables. It is also found in psyllium, a common fiber supplement. Some types of soluble fiber may help lower risk of heart disease.
  • Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as wheat bran, vegetables, and whole grains. It adds bulk to the stool and appears to help food pass more quickly through the stomach and intestines. (Soluble vs. insoluble fiber, 2014)

A research team at Georgia State University looked at the effects of diets varying in amounts of soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, and fat on the structure of the intestines, as well as fat accretion for weight gain in mice. Crucial observations from this study are:

  • Mice on a diet lacking soluble fiber gained weight and had more fat compared with mice on a diet that included soluble fiber. The intestines of mice on the soluble fiber-deficient diet were also shorter and had thinner walls. These structural changes were observed as soon as two days after starting the diet.
  • Introducing soluble fiber into the diet restored the gut structure. Supplementing with soluble fiber inulin (a polysaccharide, (C 6 H 10 O 5) n, obtained from the roots of certain plants, especially elecampane, dahlia, and Jerusalem artichoke, that undergoes hydrolysis to the dextrorotatory [Turning or rotating the plane of polarization of light to the right or clockwise,as for solutions or isomers, usually designated as d- in chemical names.] form of fructose: used chiefly as an ingredient in diabetic bread, in processed foods to increase their fiber content, and as a reagent in diagnosing kidney functionAlso called alant starch.)

    restored the intestinal structure in mice on the soluble fiber-deficient diet. Mice that received cellulose, an insoluble fiber, however, did not show improvements. Moreover, in mice fed a high-fat diet, switching the type of fiber from insoluble to soluble protected the mice from the fat accumulation and intestinal wasting that occurs with excess fat consumption. The data suggest a difference in health benefits between soluble and insoluble dietary fibers, the researchers stated.

  • Improvements in gut structure with soluble fiber were due to changes in the gut microbiota and the gut microbiota’s production of molecules called short-chain fatty acids, which are used as fuel by intestinal cells and have anti-inflammatory properties. Mice consuming a soluble fiber-deficient diet had lower levels of short chain fatty acids and introducing soluble fiber into their diet boosted their levels. Supplementing the soluble fiber-deficient diet with short chain fatty acids had similar effects as inulin supplementation, although not to the same extent. Inulin supplementation increased the size of the intestines in normal mice but not in mice with no gut microbiota, supporting that the gut microbiota is involved in the intestinal health effects of soluble fiber. According to the researchers, the data support that soluble fiber promotes gut health by encouraging the gut microbiota to produce short chain fatty acids.

“If our observations were to prove applicable to humans, it would suggest that encouraging consumption of foods with high soluble fiber content may be a means to combat the epidemic of metabolic disease. Moreover, the addition of inulin and perhaps other soluble fibers to processed foods, including calorically rich obesogenic foods, may be a means to ameliorate their detrimental effects,” the researchers stated. (Brooks, 2015)

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

Brooks, S. (2015, October 30). Diet Lacking Soluble Fiber Promotes Weight Gain, Mouse Study Suggests. Retrieved November 9, 2015, from The American Physiological Society Press Release: http://www.the-aps.org/mm/hp/Audiences/Public-Press/2015/59.html

Soluble vs. insoluble fiber. (2014, August 11). Retrieved November 9, 2015, from MedlinePlus: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002136.htm

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

MORE EVIDENCE FOR GREATLY REDUCING SATURATED FAT IN YOUR DIET! VOL. 1 NO. 56


 

 Severe hypertriglyceridemia in human blood (triglyceride levels greater than 500 mg per dL [5.65 mmol per L])1 may manifest as a grossly lipemic serum sample when levels exceed 1,000 mg per dL (11.30 mmol per L).
Severe hypertriglyceridemia in human blood (triglyceride levels greater than 500 mg per dL [5.65 mmol per L])1 may manifest as a grossly lipemic serum sample when levels exceed 1,000 mg per dL (11.30 mmol per L).

“High levels of saturated fat in the blood could make an individual more prone to inflammation and tissue damage, a new study suggests.” (Mendoza, 2015)

Eating saturated fat with gay abandon has been called into question once again. New research states that excessive ingestion of saturated fat is not good for us.

“Scientists from Imperial College London studied mice that have an unusually high level of saturated fat circulating in their blood. The research, published 3 September 2015 in Cell Reports shows that the presence of saturated fats resulted in monocytes – a type of white blood cell (Any of various large white blood cells that are formed in the bone marrow, circulate in the blood, and destroy pathogenic bacteria by phagocytosis. Monocytes develop into macrophages in various body tissues.) – migrating into the tissues of vital organs.” (Mendoza, 2015)

The researchers think that the migrating monocytes could increase tissue damage due to the fact they may exacerbate ongoing underlying inflammation, this aspect is still under study.

Dr. Woollard from the Department of Medicine at Imperial College London
Dr. Woollard from the Department of Medicine at Imperial College London

Lead researcher Dr. Kevin Woollard said: “The mice we studied were treated with a drug that caused them to accumulate extremely high levels of fat in their blood. Although it is unusual, humans do sometimes have measurements approaching those levels, either from an inherited condition or through eating fatty foods.”

“Modern lifestyles seem to go hand-in-hand with high levels of fat in the blood. This fat comes from the food and drinks that we consume; for example, you’d be surprised how much saturated fat a latte contains, and some people drink several through the course of the day.”

“We think that maintaining a relatively high concentration of saturated fats for example by constantly snacking on cakes, biscuits, and pastries could be causing monocytes to migrate out of the blood and into surrounding tissues.”

“Blood is very finely balanced, and the exchange of cells and other substances with the surrounding tissue is part of maintaining that balance.” (Mendoza, 2015)

Professor Marina Botto from the Department of Medicine at Imperial College London
Professor Marina Botto from the Department of Medicine at Imperial College London

The team, led by Dr. Woollard and Professor Marina Botto from the Department of Medicine at Imperial College London, has noticed that as the organs absorb fats, most of the relocated monocytes are turned into another type of immune cell call the macrophage. Some of the cells located within the tissues monoawesometake in fat and are turned into foam cells (Foam cells are fat-laden macrophages seen in atherosclerosis. They are an indication of plaque build-up or atherosclerosis.) These foam cells and macrophages spur on the production of a signaling molecule called CCL 4, which attracts more monocytes into the tissue. This closed loop continues increasing output of foam cells in macrophages as long as the level of saturated fat is elevated.

These mechanisms of action “may have evolved to remove fats from the blood in order to maintain a healthy balance; further research is required to confirm this.” (Mendoza, 2015)

A key element of these observations, however, is that the monocytes involved in this process are of one very specific type.

Dr. Woollard said, “It’s really exciting to see that the monocytes that migrate into tissues are all of one type and that means we actually may be able to develop drugs that change this behavior.”

nrneph.2012.41-f1
Click to enlarge

Individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease or obese individuals could be treated with a drug that targets these particular monocytes preventing the possible future damage caused by fatty buildup in blood vessels in organs.

“Interestingly, people with certain immune disorders affecting monocytes, including some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases like lupus, can have unexpectedly high levels of saturated fats in their blood and also are more likely to suffer heart attacks  and strokes  at a younger age.”

“The next stages of this research will be to study groups of patients with inflammatory diseases, and to look at the direct effects of saturated foods on monocyte function.” (Mendoza, 2015)

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

 


Mendoza, N. W. (2015, September 03). Health risks of saturated fats aggravated by immune response. Retrieved September 06, 2015, from Imperial College London News: http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/newssummary/news_3-9-2015-17-8-27

 

Saja et al (2015), “Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins Modulate the Distribution and Extravasation of Ly6C/Gr1low Monocytes,” Cell Reports, doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.08.020

 

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.