Tag Archives: Fitness

EXERCISING ON THE CHEAP


What is one of the simplest and least expensive ways to improve heart function? Walking.

 

Walking is one of the least expensive exercises an individual can do; just put on a pair of sneakers and you are ready to go. It is also one of the most convenient of exercises. Walking can be accomplished just about anywhere, making it a popular favorite. The health benefits of walking are many. Brisk, consistent walking is an effective way to lower blood pressure and keep diabetes and bay, both of which in turn lower heart disease risk. Two expansive, long-term Harvard studies conjure that walking for about 20 minutes a day may cut your risk of heart disease by as much as 30%.

 

f53a0a6f4aed201338212558cf6133e3Some people still need that proverbial kick in the pants to start and stick with a walking program. One of the best ways is to find walking buddies, says Dr. Lauren Elson, physical medicine and rehabilitation instructor at Harvard Medical School. “I find that if I can get someone to walk with a partner—a spouse or a friend—that helps a lot.” Even better is getting several friends to walk together because they all hold each other accountable. “They call each other up and say, ‘Where are you?'” Dr. Elson says. For additional suggestions for group walking opportunities, see the websites of the American Heart Association (www.health.harvard.edu/walking-clubs) and Walk with a Doc (www.walkwithadoc.org).

 

pedometer-004Other people find motivation by using a pedometer to track their steps and distance, says Dr. Elson, who is also the medical editor of the Harvard Special Health Report Walking for Health (www.health.harvard.edu/walk). One study of 26 determined that people who used pedometers increased physical activity levels by nearly 27%, amounting to about 2,500 steps a day. Many stores that sell exercise equipment have inexpensive pedometers. With a smartphone, you can download a pedometer app such as Moves, Breeze, or Pedometer++.

 

If you use a pedometer, track your steps from morning until night. Take the average of your total steps for two or three days aiming to increase your daily total by about 1,000 to 2,000 steps. Increase your steps by the same amounts until you reach at least 10,000 steps per day.

 

If you have been whammed by a heart attack or been diagnosed with heart disease, walking is the perfect exercise; you can easily adjust your routine in conjunction with your fitness level. If you have heart failure, seek a cardiac rehabilitation program recommended by your Dr.

 

largeWhether you start a walking program on your own or with supervision, plan to start slowly and work gradually toward better fitness—, and follow these safety tips:

  • Always warm up with five minutes of easy walking to prepare your muscles and heart for exercise. At the end, cool down by slowing your pace.
  • Do not push through fatigue. If you feel tired or have any heart symptoms, stop.
  • Walk in an indoor shopping mall if it is too cold, too snowy, or too hot to exercise outdoors. Ask your doctor if you should take any additional precautions.

 

Therefore, my fellow travelers, couch potatoes one and all, what is left to say? If one has not been exercising, the eight-week workout is a sure bet. You will increase the time you are walking and work up to 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week as well.  And so we’re on the same page, brisk walking is defined as walking as if you are in a bit of a hurry. Breathing rate should increase, but you can still talk in a full sentence that is if you are not functionally illiterate. Finally, good posture means good health; stand tall with your head up, shoulders down and back, and flabby abdominal muscles tight.

 

Get started walking

This eight-week program will take your walking from just 10 minutes a day up to 30 minutes, allowing you to build up gradually.

 
Week Sessions per week Warm-up (time and pace) Walking (time and pace) Cool-down (time and pace) Daily total Weekly total
                     
1 7 3 minutes slow 5 minutes moderate 2 minutes slow 10 minutes 70 minutes
2 7 3 minutes slow 10 minutes moderate 2 minutes slow 15 minutes 105 minutes
3 6 3 minutes slow 15 minutes moderate 2 minutes slow 20 minutes 120 minutes
4 6 5 minutes slow 5 minutes moderate,
5 minutes brisk, 5 minutes moderate
 

 

 

2 minutes slow 20 minutes 120 minutes
5 6 3 minutes slow 5 minutes moderate,
10 minutes brisk, 5 minutes moderate
 

 

 

2 minutes slow 25 minutes 150 minutes
6 6 5 minutes slow to moderate  

 

12 minutes brisk,
3 minutes moderate
5 minutes slow 25 minutes 150 minutes
7 6 5 minutes slow to moderate  

 

15 minutes brisk 5 minutes moderate to slow 25 minutes 150 minutes
8 5 5 minutes slow to moderate  

 

20 minutes brisk 5 minutes moderate to slow 30 minutes 150 minutes

 

 

Marching orders: How to start a walking program. (2015, November). Retrieved from Harvard Health Publications HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL: http://www.health.harvard.edu/heart-health/marching-orders-how-to-start-a-walking-program

 

 

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY STATISTICS


 

About Overweight and Obesity

This publication describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States.

  • Overweight refers to an excess amount of body weight that may come from muscles, bone, fat, and water.1
  • Obesity refers to an excess amount of body fat.1

Fast Facts

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010 2, 3

  • More than 2 in 3 adults are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • More than 1 in 3 adults are considered to be obese.
  • More than 1 in 20 adults are considered to have extreme obesity.
  • About one-third of children and adolescents ages 6 to 19 are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • More than 1 in 6 children and adolescents ages 6 to 19 are considered to be obese.

Using Body Mass Index (BMI) to Estimate Overweight and Obesity

The BMI is the tool most commonly used to estimate overweight and obesity in children and adults.

BMI of Adults Age 20 and Older
BMI Classifcation
18.5 to 24.9 Normal weight
25 to 29.9 Overweight
30 + Obesity
40 + Extreme obesity

For adults, overweight and obesity ranges are measured by using weight and height to compute the person’s BMI. The BMI is used because, for most people, it correlates with the amount of fat in their bodies. An online tool for gauging the BMIs of adults can be found at:http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/adult_BMI/english_bmi_calculator/bmi_calculator.htmlExternal Link Disclaimer

BMI of Children and Adolescents Ages 2 – 19
BMI Classification
At or above the 85th percentile Overweight or obese
At or above the 95th percentile Obese

Children grow at different rates at different times, so it is not always easy to tell if a child is overweight. BMI charts for children compare their height and weight to other children of their same sex and age. An online tool for guaging the BMIs of children and teens can be found at: http://nccd.cdc.gov/dnpabmi/Calculator.aspxExternal Link Disclaimer

Causes of Overweight and Obesity

Overweight and obesity result from an energy imbalance. The body needs a certain amount of energy (calories) from food to keep up basic life functions. Body weight tends to remain the same when the number of calories eaten equals the number of calories the body uses or “burns.” Over time, when people eat and drink more calories than they burn, the energy balance tips toward weight gain, overweight, and obesity.

Children need to balance their energy, too, but they are also growing and that should be considered as well. Energy balance in children happens when the amount of energy taken in from food or drink and the energy being used by the body support natural growth without promoting excess weight gain.

Many factors can lead to energy imbalance and weight gain. They include genes, eating habits, how and where people live, attitudes and emotions, life habits, and income.1

Treatment of Overweight and Obesity

Overweight and obesity are risk factors for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and other health problems such as those listed below.

Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity
  • type 2 diabetes
  • heart disease
  • high blood pressure
  • nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (excess fat and inflammation in the liver of people who drink little or no alcohol)
  • osteoarthritis (a health problem causing pain, swelling, and stiffness in one or more joints)
  • some types of cancer: breast, colon, endometrial (related to the uterine lining), and kidney
  • stroke

There is no single cause of all overweight and obesity. There is no single approach that can help prevent or treat overweight and obesity. Treatment may include a mix of behavioral treatment, diet, exercise, and sometimes weight-loss drugs. In some cases of extreme obesity, weight-loss surgery may be an option.1


Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

The data presented in this publication are from two surveys conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)2,3 and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).4

Adults Age 20 and Older2
  • More than two-thirds (68.8 percent) of adults are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • More than one-third (35.7 percent) of adults are considered to be obese.
  • More than 1 in 20 (6.3 percent) have extreme obesity.
  • Almost 3 in 4 men (74 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • The prevalence of obesity is similar for both men and women (about 36 percent).
  • About 8 percent of women are considered to have extreme obesity.

Overweight and Obesity among Adults Age 20 and Older, United States, 2009–2010

Estimated Percentage by BMI


 Normal weight or underweight (BMI under 24.9)
 Overweight (BMI of 25 to 29.9)
 Obesity (BMI of 30+)
 Extreme obesity (BMI of 40+)

According to the pie graph, 31.2 percent of adults had BMIs under 24.9 and so were considered normal weight or underweight. Another 33.1 percent had BMIs from 25 to 29.9, and so they were considered overweight. The group with BMIs of 30 or higher—people considered to have obesity—amounted to 35.7 percent. Those considered to have extreme obesity, with BMIs of 40 or higher, amounted to 6.3 percent.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Estimated Percentage by Sex


 Men  Women

According to the bar graph, 74 percent of men had overweight or obesity; 64 percent of women had overweight or obesity. Equal percentages (36) of men and women had obesity. Among men, 4 percent had extreme obesity; the percentage among women was double that of men, at 8 percent.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Different Racial and Ethnic Groups—Adults*
Among Hispanic, black, and white adults age 20 and older: 2

  • Overweight and obesity affect more than 3 in 4 Hispanics (78.8 percent) and blacks (76.7 percent).
  • About 2 in 3 whites (66.7 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • About half of blacks (49.5 percent), and more than 1 in 3 Hispanics (39.1 percent) and whites (34.3 percent) are considered to be obese.
  • Extreme obesity affects more than 1 in 10 blacks (13.1 percent), and about 1 in 20 whites (5.7 percent) and Hispanics (5 percent).

Rates of obesity among Asian Americans are much lower than among other racial and ethnic groups. The following are general prevalence estimates from the 2010 NHIS for adults age 18 and older in these groups who reported being of one race.4

  • Asian Americans: 11.6 percent
  • American Indians and Alaska Natives: 39.9 percent
  • Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders: 43.5 percent

† This estimate is based on a small number of respondents (n = 284) in the category of Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders; relative standard error is greater than 30 percent and less than or equal to 50 percent.

Overweight and Obesity among Adults Age 20 and Older, United States, 2009–2010

Estimated Percentage by Race/Ethnicity*


 Overweight or Obesity  Obesity  Extreme obesity

According to the bar graph, among white people, 66.7 percent were considered overweight or obese, 34.3 percent were considered obese, and 5.7. percent were considered to have extreme obesity. Among black people, 76.7 percent were considered overweight or obese, 49.5 percent were considered obese, and 13.1 percent were considered to have extreme obesity. Among Hispanic people, 78.8 percent were considered overweight or obese, 39.1 percent were considered obese, and 5 percent were considered to have extreme obesity. Among adults in the United States in all racial categories, 68.8 percent were considered overweight or obese, 35.7 percent were considered obese, and 6.3 percent were considered to have extreme obesity.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Estimated Percentage of Youth with Overweight or Obesity, United States, 2009–2011

Children and Adolescents 3
Young children ages 2 to 5 have a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity than older youth.
Among young people ages 2 to 19:

  • About 31.8 percent are considered to be either overweight or obese, and 16.9 percent are considered to be obese.
  • About 1 in 3 boys (33 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese, compared with 30.4 percent of girls.
  • About 18.6 percent of boys and 15 percent of girls are considered to be obese.

Among children and adolescents ages 6 to 19:

  • Almost 1 in 3 (33.2 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese, and 18.2 percent are considered to be obese.
  • More than 2 in 5 black and Hispanic youth (more than 41 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese.*
  • About 25.7 percent of black, 22.9 percent of Hispanic, and 15.2 percent of white youth are considered to be obese.*

Percentage by Age Group, Ages 2–19


 Overweight or Obesity  Obesity

According to the bar graph, among people ages 2–5, 26.7 percent had overweight or obesity, and 12.1 percent had obesity. Among people ages 6–11, 32.6 percent had overweight or obesity, and 18 percent had obesity. Among people ages 12–19, 33.6 percent had overweight or obesity, and 18.4 percent had obesity.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Percentage by Sex, Ages 2–19


 Overweight or Obesity  Obesity

According to the bar graph, among girls, 30.4 percent had overweight or obesity, and 15 percent had obesity. Among boys, 33 percent had overweight or obesity, and 18.6 percent had obesity. Across youth of both sexes, 31.8 percent had overweight or obesity, and 16.9 percent had obesity.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Percentage by Race/Ethnicity, Ages 6–19*


 Overweight or Obesity  Obesity

According to the bar graph, among white youth, 29 percent had overweight or obesity, and 15.2 percent had obesity. Among black youth, 41.8 percent had overweight or obesity, and 25.7 percent had obesity. Among Hispanic youth, 41.2 percent had overweight or obesity, and 22.9 percent had obesity. Across youth ages 6 to 19 of all races, 33.2 percent had overweight or obesity, and 18.2 percent had obesity.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Trends in Overweight and Obesity among Adults, United States, 1962–2010**

Changes over Time*

  • Since the early 1960s, the prevalence of obesity among adults more than doubled, increasing from 13.4 to 35.7 percent in U.S. adults age 20 and older. 2, 5
  • Obesity prevalence remained mostly stable from 1999 to 2010, but has increased slightly, yet in a statistically significant way, among men overall, as well as among black women and Mexican American women. 2
  • Among children and adolescents, the prevalence of obesity also increased in the 1980s and 1990s but is now mostly stable at about 17 percent. 3

*”Blacks” refers to non-Hispanic blacks, and “whites” refers to non-Hispanic whites.


 Overweight  Obesity  Extreme obesity

According to the graph, as of 1962, about 46 percent of adults in the United States fell into the categories of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity. About 32 percent of adults were overweight, about 13 percent were obese, and about 1 percent had extreme obesity.

Percentages of adults within all of these categories increased gradually until the late 1970s, at which point they began to climb more quickly, leveling off somewhat around 2000. The increase was most dramatic within the obesity category, while the percentage of overweight adults held fairly steady, and the percentage of adults with extreme obesity increased moderately. Around 2000, about 70 percent of adults were considered overweight, obese, or extremely obese. Of this group, 34 percent were considered overweight, about 31 percent were considered obese, and about 5 percent were considered to have extreme obesity.

By 2010, the percentage of adults considered overweight, obese, or extremely obese had climbed to about 75. About 33 percent were considered overweight, about 36 percent were considered obese, and about 6 percent were considered extremely obesese.

Source: Ogden & Carroll, 2010; Flegal et al., 2012

**Data for 1960–1980 are for adults ages 20 to 74; data for 1988–2010 are for adults age 20 and older


Physical Activity Statistics

Adults

Research Findings

  • Research suggests that staying active may lower a person’s chance of getting heart disease, stroke, some cancers, type 2 diabetes, and other conditions.
  • Researchers believe that some physical activity is better than none. Extra health benefits can be gained by increasing how often and intensely one exercises and how long each session lasts.

Government guidelines recommend that healthy adults take part in aerobic activity of moderate intensity for at least 150 minutes a week or vigorous intensity for 75 minutes a week.6 Aerobic activity uses large muscles such as the legs and back and makes the heart beat faster. In addition, the guidelines recommend that people do activities that strengthen muscles (such as weight training or push-ups) at least twice a week.

Some studies measure physical activity by people’s self-report of what they do. Other studies use a tool that records movement as it occurs. Researchers consider the studies using tools to be more accurate. A study conducted in 2003–2004 that used this type of tool to measure physical activity found that only about 3 to 5 percent of adults meet these recommendations.7

Children and Adolescent

The physical activity guidelines also recommend that children and youth get at least 60 minutes of physical activity daily.

Research Findings

Findings from a study 7 conducted in 2003–2004 that measured physical activity using a tool that records movement suggest the following:

  • In the age group of 6 to 11, almost half of boys (49 percent) and about a third of girls (35 percent) get the recommended amount of physical activity.
  • Physical activity declines with age. While 42 percent of children ages 6 to 11 get 60 minutes a day of physical activity, only about 8 percent of adolescents ages 12 to 15 reach this goal.

At all ages, girls have lower levels of physical activity than boys.

Children and Adolescents Ages 6–19 Getting at Least 60 Minutes per Day of Physical Activity, United States, 2003–2004

 All      Boys      Girls

The bar graph presents percentages for different age ranges, and it shows percentages of boys, girls, and all children within the ranges doing 60 minutes or more of daily physical activity. The leftmost part of the graph shows data on children ages 6–11. For children in that age range, 42 percent were getting at least 60 minutes of physical activity per day. Among boys, 48.9 percent were getting 60 minutes or more of daily physical activity, and among girls, the proportion was 34.7 percent. The middle of the graph shows data on youth ages 12–15. For youth within this age range, 8 percent were getting at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day. Among boys, the percentage was 11.9, and among girls, the percentage was 3.4. The right part of the graph shows percentages for youth ages 16–19. For youth within this age range, 7.6 percent were getting at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day. Among boys, 10 percent were doing 60 minutes or more of daily physical activity, and among girls, 5.4 percent were doing 60 minutes or more of physical activity each day. In general, many more young children than older ones were doing at least 60 minutes of physical activity daily.

Source: Troiano et al., 2008


References

  1. National Institutes of Health. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: The evidence report. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; September 1998. NIH Publication No. 98–4083. Available online:http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/guidelines/archive/clinical-guidelines-obesity-adults-evidence-reportExternal NIH Link
  2. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2012; 307(5):491–97. Available online:http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1104933External Link Disclaimer
  3. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999–2010. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2012; 307(5):483–90. Available online:http://jama.jamanetwork.com/Mobile/article.aspx?articleid=1104932External Link Disclaimer
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Vital and Health Statistics 10(252); 2012. Available online:http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_252.pdf [PDF – 3.8 Mb]External Link Disclaimer
  5. Ogden CL, Carroll MD. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960–1962 through 2007–2008. NCHS Health E-Stat. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2010. Available online:http://www.cdc.gov/NCHS/data/hestat/obesity_adult_07_08/obesity_adult_07_08.pdf [PDF – 202.5 Kb]External Link Disclaimer
  6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. ODPHP Publication No. U0036. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available online: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/External Link Disclaimer
  7. Troiano RP, Berrigan D, Dodd KW, Mâsse LC, Tilert T, McDowell M. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2008;40(1):181–188. Available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18091006External NIH Link

[Top]

Clinical Trials

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research into many diseases and conditions.

What are clinical trials, and are they right for you?
Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for youExternal NIH Link.

What clinical trials are open?
Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.govExternal Link Disclaimer.


Resources

Additional Reading from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Adults: United States, 2005–2008 
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db50.htmExternal Link Disclaimer

Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Children and Adolescents: United States, 2005–2008
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db51.htmExternal Link Disclaimer

Prevalence of Obesity in the United States, 2009–2010
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db82.htmExternal Link Disclaimer



This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

The NIDDK would like to thank:
Cheryl Fryar, M.S.P.H., and Cynthia Ogden, Ph.D., M.R.P., both of the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for reviewing this fact sheet.

This information is not copyrighted. The NIDDK encourages people to share this content freely.



INCONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE, THE BENEFITS OF A PALEO DIET IN MODERATING TYPE 2 DIABETES


One of the tenants of the noted Paleolithic diet concentrates its aims on avoiding refined sugars and processed food, but scientific evidence from research about any beneficial effect for people living with type 2 diabetes is unresolved at this point, according to a Perspective published online by the Medical Journal of Australia.

download
Associate Professor Sofianos Andrikopoulos from the University of Melbourne

Associate Professor Sofianos Andrikopoulos from the University of Melbourne noted that in its most basic form, the Paleo diet’s concentration on fresh foods seems compatible with dietary guidelines worldwide.

“However, what constitutes a Paleolithic diet is often skewed by individual interpretation or bias. This lack of a standard definition further complicates research evidence for or against this dietary approach and is often supported by individual self-reported benefits on health and wellbeing in popular social media channels.” Notwithstanding the enthusiasm shown for the Paleo diet, there is the dearth of adequate scientific trials investigating the effect of the diet on people with diabetes.

However, a Swedish study discovered that the Paleo diet achieved a lower value of body mass index and glycated hemoglobin levels (The A1C test is a blood test that provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, LEM1103abnormal286over the past 3 months. The A1C test is sometimes called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, or glycohemoglobin test.) The comparison was made against a diabetes diet for obese patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Associate Professor Andrikopoulos concluded that the study was not of enough breath to determine any long-term benefit.

“These small and short-term studies tend to indicate some benefit but do not convincingly show that a Paleolithic diet is effective for weight loss and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes,” he wrote.

Study on a healthy, research group of average weight put on a Paleo diet for 10 days showed a static response to fasting plasma glucose (insulin) levels. It did find reduced plasma lipid levels and blood pressure compared with the usual baseline diet.

MetaSynd_flatAnother 2-week study on obese patients with metabolic syndrome (a cluster of biochemical and physiological abnormalities associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes) found no effect on glucose tolerance (how well your body’s cells are able to absorb glucose or sugar). The study did reveal that the group had reduced blood pressure and plasma lipid levels, which was associated with a small decrease in weight.

In summation, Associate Professor Andrikopoulos stated; “given that even very short deficits in energy balance can improve metabolic parameters, it is difficult to make strong conclusions about the long-term benefits of the Paleolithic diet in type 2 diabetes (or any other condition), because of the short duration of the interventions (less than 12 weeks), the lack of a proper control group in some instances, and the small sample size (less than 20 individuals) of the above studies”.

Article: The Paleo diet and diabetes, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Medical Journal of Australia, doi: 10.5694/mja16.00347, published 8 August 2016.

Source: Australian Medical Association (AMA)

 

 

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

POPULAR DIETS AND CORRECTING THE NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES IN EACH


5607351_origWhat diet are you on? If it is the paleo, high protein, low carb, gluten-free, vegetarian and vegan diet then this article may be of interest to you. Whether people choose these diets with the hope of losing weight or maintaining a semblance of wellness, individuals that subscribe to these diets could be missing some essential vitamins and nutrients. In the April issue of Food Technology Magazine, Linda Milo Ohr writes about the vitamin and nutrient deficiencies in these popular diets and what is needed to make up for them.

Vegetarian and Vegan

Individuals following the vegetarian and vegan diet comprise a significant and growing part of the consumer base worldwide, as much as 20% of the global population (DSM 2013). Worldwide, there are around 1.4 billion vegetarians, and the number is increasing.

The 2015-2020 U.S. Vegetarian Healthy Eating plan includes more legumes, soy products, nuts, seeds, and whole grains compared to the standard Health U.S. Style Eating Pattern. It contains no meats, poultry, or seafood. Due to differences in the foods included in the protein foods group, specifically more tofu and beans, the vegetarian diet plan is somewhat higher in calcium and dietary fiber and lower in vitamin D (HHS/USDA 2016).

http://patch.com/new-jersey/ramsey-nj/how-avoid-common-nutrient-deficiencies-if-youre-vegan
http://patch.com/new-jersey/ramsey-nj/how-avoid-common-nutrient-deficiencies-if-youre-vegan

The Mayo Clinic recommends that vegetarians pay special attention to eating foods that contain calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B12, protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, and zinc. Vitamin B12 is necessary to produce red blood cells while the iron is also a component of red blood cells and is important for oxygen transport. It also plays a role in energy metabolism and the immune system.
Omega-3 fatty acids are important for heart health and cognition. They are mainly found in fish; however, vegetarian-sourced omega-3s are available (Ohr, 2016).

High-Protein/Low-Carb/Gluten-Free
High-protein/low-carbohydrate diets, carbohydrate-free diets, and gluten-free diets put a major emphasis on eliminating or reducing carbohydrate consumption and often whole grains from the diet. Gluten-free diets are essential for those diagnosed with celiac disease, but the gluten-free lifestyle has a growing following among those who feel they are sensitive to gluten, think gluten is bad for them, or want to reduce carbohydrates in their diets (Ohr, 2016).

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“Low-carbohydrate diets have been around for a long time,” says Jim White, spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (eatright.org) and owner of Jim White Fitness & Nutrition Studios, Virginia Beach, Va. (jimwhitefit.com). “With low carbs, you are missing one of the major macronutrients, whole grains. You can end up missing out on B vitamins for energy metabolism and dietary fiber, which already as a nation we are not consuming enough of.” White explains that if not enough fiber is consumed, the unique nutritional benefits aren’t felt, such as satiety, transit time, and cholesterol reduction. “Initially, when you decrease carbohydrates, there will be weight loss, but most will be water weight because there are about 3 grams of water per 1 gram of carbohydrate.” White notes that consumers following a gluten-free diet do have other sources of complex carbohydrates available to them, including quinoa, brown rice, and sweet potatoes.

Paleo
The Paleo diet, often referred to as the Caveman diet, advises consumers to return to the eating habits of our ancestors. The basic diet consists of lean meat, fish/seafood, nuts, fruits, vegetables, and healthful oils (olive, walnut, flaxseed, macadamia, avocado, and coconut). What is cut out of the diet are grains, legumes, dairy products, foods high in refined sugar and salt, processed foods, potatoes, and refined vegetable oils (Ohr, 2016).

http://www.christopherjamesclark.com/blog/the-paleo-diet-and-b-vitamin-deficiencies-the-critics-vs-the-data/
http://www.christopherjamesclark.com/blog/the-paleo-diet-and-b-vitamin-deficiencies-the-critics-vs-the-data/

The Paleo diet is popular for weight loss as well as athletic performance because of its focus on lean protein consumption. Manheimer et al. (2015) demonstrated that the Paleo diet resulted in greater short-term improvements on metabolic syndrome components than did guideline-based control diets. The researchers conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the Paleo nutritional pattern with any other dietary pattern in participants with one or more of the five components of metabolic syndrome. Four RCTs that involved 159 participants were included. The four control diets were based on distinct national nutrition guidelines but were broadly similar. Paleo nutrition resulted in greater short-term improvements than did the control diets for waist circumference, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and fasting blood sugar (Ohr, 2016).

With its focus on lean proteins and elimination of grains and dairy, those following the Paleo lifestyle need to consider nutrients they may not be getting in adequate amounts. It is recommended that people should supplement with folate, B vitamins, calcium, and vitamin D. “With many diets, especially Paleo and dairy-free, we are seeing people not getting enough calcium and vitamin D,” observes White.

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

 


 

Ohr, L. M. (2016, April). Filling in Nutrient Gaps, Volume 70, Number 4. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from IFT: http://www.ift.org/food-technology/past-issues/2016/april/columns/nutraceuticals-nutrient-gaps.aspx

DSM. 2013. Essentials for Vegetarians. DSM Nutritional Products, Heerlen, the Netherlands. dsm.com.

HHS/USDA. 2016. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services/U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/.

Manheimer, E. W., E. J. van Zuuren, Z. Fedorowicz, and H. Pijl. 2015. “Paleolithic Nutrition for Metabolic Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 102(4): 922–932.

 

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

TATTOO YOU, WHAT TO THINK ABOUT BEFORE THE TATTOO!


Many Americans are being tattooed to these days. Surveys indicate approximately one in five Americans now has at least one tattoo.

 Linda Katz, M.D., M.P.H., Director of FDA's Office of Cosmetics and Colors
Linda Katz, M.D., M.P.H., Director of FDA’s Office of Cosmetics and Colors

It is also shown with the increasing popularity of tattoos, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is seeing a rise in reports of individuals developing infections from contaminated tattoo inks, as well as having bad reactions to the inks themselves,
according to Linda Katz, M.D., M.P.H., director of FDA’s Office of Cosmetics and Colors.

Before getting a tattoo, mull over the seven important questions (as answered by Dr. Katz):

1. Should I be concerned about non-sterile needles, or the ink itself?

sciencephoto_rf_photo_of_infected_tattoo
Infected tattoo

Both; while it’s true that you can get infections from unhygienic practices and equipment that isn’t sterile, in the last several years there have been cases in which people got infections because the ink itself was contaminated with microorganisms, such as bacteria and mold introduced either at the time of manufacture or at the tattoo parlor. Using non-sterile water to dilute the pigments is a common culprit, although not the only one.

There is no sure-fire way to tell if the ink is safe. Just looking at it or smelling it will not tell you if it is contaminated. An ink can be contaminated even if the container is sealed or wrapped, or the label asserts the product is sterile. In fact, ink could become contaminated at any point in the production process.

State, county, or local health departments oversee the operation of tattoo parlors. In situations in which firms recall tattoo inks, FDA is often involved in alerting firms to problems related to their inks and working with the firms to make sure recalls are effective. FDA also alerts the public when it becomes aware of a public health concern.

2. What does FDA know about inks?

eternallabel1The information the agency has about inks is limited. But FDA is analyzing tattoo inks and pigments for contaminants, heavy metals, degradants, potentially toxic chemicals—including pH stabilizers, microbicides and coating agents—and other materials that are not intended to be placed into the body. There are reports in the published scientific literature of tattoo inks that contain everything from pigments used in printer toner to pigments used in car paint.

3. What about do-it-yourself tattoo inks and kits?

tattoo_729-420x0-ebay.com_.aiu_Inks and kits sold online to consumers have been associated with reports of infection or allergic reaction. The agency is also concerned that, unlike most licensed tattoo artists, consumers will not have sufficient knowledge or the means to control and avoid all possible sources of contamination and subsequent infections in the process of giving themselves a tattoo.

4. What kinds of reactions have been seen with tattoos?

Infected do it yourself tattoo; note pussy sores.
Infected do- it- yourself tattoo; note pussy sores.

You might notice a rash—redness or bumps—in the area of your tattoo, and you could develop a fever. Serious infections can require months of treatment with a variety of antibiotics. More virulent or aggressive infections may be associated with high fever, shaking, chills, and sweats. If these symptoms arise, you may need antibiotics, hospitalization, and/or surgery. Your physician or other health care professional will make that determination.

If you have an allergic reaction, the exact cause may be hard to pinpoint. You could have an allergic reaction to a pigment (one of the ingredients that add color to the ink) or to a diluent, (the liquid used to dilute the pigments). On the other hand, you could have a reaction to a contaminant that got into the ink during manufacturing.

In addition, because the inks are permanent, the reaction may persist.

5. If I get a tattoo and develop an infection or other reaction, what should I do?

Portia Love, M.D., is a Montgomery dermatologist.
Portia Love, M.D., is a Montgomery dermatologist.

Three things: First, contact your doctor or other health care professional.

tattoo-artist_travis-clancy_can-turkyilmaz_ts1_9794Second, notify the tattoo artist. That way he or she can identify the ink that was used, and avoid using it again. Moreover, you can ask the tattoo artist for detailed information on the brand, color, and any lot or batch information that may be useful in determining the source of the problem and how to treat it.

Third, report the problem to FDA. FDA urges consumers, tattoo artists, and even health care professionals to report tattoo-related problems to FDA. Here is how:

Provide as much detail as possible about the ink and your reaction and outcome. Reports from consumers are one of our most important sources of safety information.

 

6. What about later on, Could other problems occur?

Although research is ongoing at FDA and elsewhere, there are still a lot of questions the research has not answered yet. These include questions about the long-term effects of the pigments, other ingredients, and possible contaminants in tattoo ink.

Then there is the question of tattoo removal. We know that people have laser treatments to remove tattoos, but we do not know the short- or long-term consequences of how the pigments break down after laser treatment. However, we do know that there may be permanent scarring from some of the tattoo removal procedures.

 

7. What is the bottom line?

Think before you ink. Because of all the unknowns described above, this is not a decision to be made without careful consideration.

This is especially important because, despite advances in laser technology, removing a tattoo is a painstaking process and complete removal without scarring may be impossible.

If you do decide to get a tattoo, make sure the tattoo parlor and artist are in compliance with all state and local laws. The National Conference of State Legislatures has a Web page on state laws, statutes, and regulations governing tattooing and body piercing. For information on local regulations, contact your county or city health department.

 

A Tattoo for You? Seven Key Questions to Consider. (2016, May 3). Retrieved May 3, 2016, from FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration: http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm316357.htm?source=govdelivery&utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery#top

 

POOR DIET, LACK OF EXERCISE HASTENS THE ONSET OF AGE-RELATED CONDITIONS IN MICE AND MEN.


images (2)An unhealthy diet and living the life of a coach potato may be making you age faster. Researchers at Mayo Clinic believe there is a link between these modifiable lifestyle factors and the biological processes of aging. In a recent study, researchers demonstrated that a poor diet and lack of exercise accelerated the onset of cellular senescence ( the process of aging) and, in turn, age-related conditions in mice. Results appear in the March issue of Diabetes  (Forliti, 2016).

images (4)Senescent cells contribute to various diseases and conditions joined with age. Researchers from the Mayo Clinic Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging discovered that exercise deters premature senescent cell accumulation and as a prophylactic against the harmful effects of an unhealthy diet including but not limited to deficits in physical, heart, and metabolic function, equal to diabetes.

Nathan K. LeBrasseur, M.S., Ph.D.
Nathan K. LeBrasseur, M.S., Ph.D.

“We think at both a biological level and a clinical level, poor nutrition choices and inactive lifestyles do accelerate aging,” says Nathan LeBrasseur, Ph.D., director of the Center on Aging’s Healthy and Independent Living Program and senior author of the study. “So now we’ve shown this in very fine detail at a cellular level, and we can see it clinically. And people need to remember that even though you don’t have the diagnosis of diabetes or the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease or the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease today when you’re in midlife, the biology underlying those processes is hard at work.”

Junk_food_2While the deleterious effects of the fast-food diet were readily apparent, researchers found noticeable health improvements after the mice began to exercise. Half the mice, among which were on both healthful and unhealthful diets, were given exercise wheels. The mice that ate a fast food diet but exercised displayed suppression in body weight gain and fat mass accumulation; they were protected against the buildup of senescent cells. The mice petit healthful, normal diet also benefited from exercise.

MULTIMEDIA ALERT: Video is available for download on the Mayo Clinic News Network. https://youtu.be/SRqmxfwf9aI

“Some of us believe that aging is just something that happens to all of us and it’s just a predestined fate, and by the time I turn 65 or 70 or 80, I will have Alzheimer’s disease and cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis,” says Dr. LeBrasseur. “And this clearly shows the importance of modifiable factors so healthy diet, and even more so, just the importance of regular physical activity. So that doesn’t mean that we need to be marathon runners, but we need to find ways to increase our habitual activity levels to stay healthy and prevent processes that drive aging and aging-related diseases.”

The research was supported by the Paul F. Glenn Foundation for Medical Research, the National Institutes of Health, the Pritzker Foundation, and Robert and Arlene Kogod.

Others on the research team include Marissa Schafer, Ph.D.; Thomas White, Ph.D.; Glenda Evans; Jason Tonne; Grace Verzosa, M.D.; Michael Stout, Ph.D.; Daniel Mazula; Allyson Palmer; Darren Baker, Ph.D.; Michael Jensen, M.D.; Michael Torbenson, M.D.; Jordan Miller, Ph.D.; Yasuhiro Ikeda, Ph.D.; Tamar Tchkonia. Ph.D.; Jan van Deursen, Ph.D.; James Kirkland, M.D., Ph.D., all of Mayo Clinic.

Mayo Clinic and Dr. Tchkonia, Palmer, Dr. Kirkland and Dr. LeBrasseur have a financial interest related to this research.

 

 

Forliti, M. (2016, March 16). Poor Diet, Lack of Exercise Accelerate Onset of Age-Related Conditions in Mice. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from Mayo Clinic News Network: http://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/poor-diet-and-lack-of-exercise-accelerate-the-onset-of-age-related-conditions-in-mice/

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

A 5% WEIGHT-LOSS MAKES A BIG DIFFERENCE IN YOUR HEALTH PROFILE.


Medical_complications_of_obesity
Medical complications of obesity. Click to enlarge

Greater than one in three Americans are obese. Obesity is a looming risk factor for a variety of diseases, two diseases being type 2 diabetes and heart disease. These health problems stem from a wide range of underlying medical abnormalities that affect the liver, pancreas, muscle, fat, and other tissues.

Current treatment guidelines suggest a 5% to 10% weight reduction in people that are overweight or obese to bring about any noticeable improvements in health. Team leader, Dr. Samuel Klein, at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and his team studied the metabolic benefits of a 5% weight-loss in obese subjects. NIH’s National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), and other NIH constituents funded this study.

downloadThe scientists randomly assigned 40 sedentary people with obesity to maintain their body weight or to go on a diet to lose 5% of their body weight, followed by targets of 10% and 15%. Participants averaged 44 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) of 38 (average weight of about 235 pounds). The participants did not smoke or have diabetes. The findings appeared online on February 22, 2016, in Cell Metabolism (Torgan, 2016).

Subjects in the weight-loss group ate a low-calorie diet: 50%-55% of the energy supplied was in the form of carbohydrate, 30% as fat, and 15%-20% as protein. Participants were provided with weekly diets and behavioral education sessions.

download (1)Nineteen individuals reached the initial target range of 5% weight-loss, an average of 12 pounds, after about 3 ½ months. The researchers discovered that this crew had greatly decreased body fat, which included the abdominal fat and fat in the liver. Moreover, they had decreased blood plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin, which are the telltale risk factors for heart disease and diabetes. These individuals showed an improved function of insulin-secreting beta cells found in the pancreas, as well as increased sensitivity of fat, liver, and muscle tissue to insulin.

Biomarkers of inflammation are increased in people with obesity. However, the scientists found no changes in systemic or fat tissue biomarkers of inflammation with subjects having a 5% weight-loss.

fast-weight-loss-tips-for-menNine individuals reached the succeeding targets having reached an approximate weight loss of 11% in about seven months and a 16% weight-loss at about 10 months. The decreases in fat mass, blood plasma insulin, leptin, and triglyceride concentrations continued in concert with the weight-loss. Continued improvements in beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in muscle was seen in these individuals. Insulin sensitivity in the liver and fat tissue was not significant with weight-loss greater than 5%.

“Our findings demonstrate that you get the biggest bang for your buck with 5% weight loss,” Klein says. “If you weigh 200 pounds, you will be doing yourself a favor if you can lose 10 pounds and keep it off. You don’t have to lose 50 pounds to get important health benefits.”

This study did not ascertain whether these effects are maintained for further periods. More research is needed to determine if individuals with diabetes have the same types and patterns of metabolic adjustment following increasing weight-loss as in this study.

 

 

Torgan, C. (2016, March 3). Benefits of moderate weight loss in people with obesity. Retrieved March 17, 2016, from NIH RESEARCH MATTERS: http://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/benefits-moderate-weight-loss-people-obesity

Effects of Moderate and Subsequent Progressive Weight Loss on Metabolic Function and Adipose Tissue Biology in Humans with Obesity. Magkos F, Fraterrigo G, Yoshino J, Luecking C, Kirbach K, Kelly SC, de Las Fuentes L, He S, Okunade AL, Patterson BW, Klein S. Cell Metab. 2016 Feb 22. pii: S1550-4131(16)30053-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2016.02.005. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 26916363.

 

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

JUNK FOOD STILL PREVAILS, REGULAR BRANDS TRIUMPH OVERALL IN A RECENT SURVEY.


foodIt is noted that consumers are making choices that are more healthful at the grocery store in ever-increasing numbers. The caveat being that they tend to buy healthful as well as less healthful foods according to a new study from the University of Buffalo School of Management.

The study, which is published in the Journal of Retailing, finds individuals are concerned about eating a healthful diet but still throw junk food into the shopping cart.

“There is a disconnect between what people say they want to eat and what they actually purchase.” Minakshi Trivedi, Professor of Marketing University at Buffalo School of Management
“There is a disconnect between what people say they want to eat and what they actually purchase.”
Minakshi Trivedi, Professor of Marketing
University at Buffalo School of Management

“There is a disconnect between what people say they want to eat and what they actually purchase,” says study co-author Minakshi Trivedi, Ph.D., professor of marketing at the University at Buffalo School of Management. “Each group we studied made tradeoffs on healthy and unhealthy food to varying degrees.”

Researchers scrutinized two years’ worth of scanner data consisting of more than 70 stores of a U.S. major retail chain. They gathered 400 responses from the chain’s shoppers investigating whether or not consumers deliberately balance their health concerns with the food that they actually buy.

The study grouped consumers into three segments using a mathematical model based on their attitudes and concerns: the first group was made up of health-driven buyers, the second took a more moderate approach to purchasing healthy products, and the third group was indifferent to the healthier versions of products (Manne, 2016).

Price-gap-between-healthy-and-unhealthy-foods-is-growing-wider_strict_xxlFaced with healthful or unhealthful choices, which the research evaluated using the level of fat, sugar, or salt as markers, the individual segments showed marked differences in characteristics, buying behavior, and acknowledgment to price and discounts.

dnews--1387--are-healthy-foods-really-more-expensive--large.thumbPrice, not surprisingly, had the smallest effect on the health-driven group. 92% of those concerned the most with health bought the healthful options. The more moderately health-driven group was more concerned and most likely to strike the balance between healthful and regular versions of the products. About 50% of the buyers in this group chose the healthful options. The third group of consumers was mostly affected by price and discounts. They chose the regular versions of products in opposition to their healthful alternatives.

Retailers can use these findings to design different strategies that meet the demand for and encourage the purchase of healthier products, according to the authors. The study provides guidance to retailers about which products to bundle for promotions and which element of the bundle to promote (Manne, 2016).

As for public policy, “If government agencies are to have any impact in promoting healthy consumption, they need to tailor their strategies to specific behavioral segments,” says Trivedi.

 

 

Manne, K. (2016, March 10). Double cheeseburger and a diet soda, please. Retrieved March 14, 2016, from University at Buffalo The State University of New York School of Management: http://mgt.buffalo.edu/about/news.host.html/content/shared/mgt/news/double-cheeseburger-and-a-diet-soda-please.detail.html

 

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

FULL DISCLOSURE OF OBESITY AFTER ACHIEVING A NORMAL WEIGHT


 

A qualitative study1 from North Carolina State University suggests that most individuals who have lost a great deal of weight do not look at themselves as being judged because they were big or beefy, meaty or bouncy, which contradicts earlier studies that individuals were still stigmatized even after reaching a normal weight.

images (11)Prior research concluded that people judge thin individuals more severely if they know that those individuals used to be overweight e.g., judging them to be less attractive or lazy.

Lynsey Romo, assistant professor of communication at NC State
Lynsey Romo, assistant professor of communication at NC State

“I wanted to know whether people who have lost weight did experience this sort of residual stigma, and how they navigated that issue,” says Lynsey Romo, an assistant professor of communication at NC State and author of a paper describing the work. “Specifically, I looked at how and what these people chose to share about their weight loss” (Shipman, 2016).

eat_healthy_weightFor this study, Romo directed in-depth interviews with 17 men and 13 women. All of the study individuals self-identified as having a normal weight; but these participants had been overweight or obese. The weight-loss of these individuals who participated in the study hovered around 76.4 pounds.

“I found that an overwhelming number of participants had not perceived any residual stigma related to their weight loss; most felt the response to their weight loss was very positive,” Romo says (Shipman, 2016).

images (13)“Most study participants were extremely open about their weight loss, for different reasons,” Romo says. “Some wanted to try to inspire others who were trying to lose weight, some disclosed their experience in order to build relationships by sharing personal information, and others felt that talking about their weight loss publicly made them feel more accountable and helped them keep the weight off” (Shipman, 2016).

However, a few individuals involved in the study were rather closed mouth about their weight-loss.

04-mental-attitudes-for-weight-loss-mind-reading-slA reason for this revolved around seeming conceited or putting on airs of being holier than thou are. For a small group of individuals in the study, there was a concern of lingering rapprochement; that they would be placed in a negative light if others discovered they had been overweight.

“Based on this work, the residual stigma discussed in earlier research may be overstated,” Romo says. “Or, at least, most people who have lost weight don’t perceive a biased response in their day-to-day interactions” (Shipman, 2016).

“Everyone needs to make his or her own decisions, but this research suggests that most people should feel comfortable talking about their weight loss experiences” (Shipman, 2016).

 

The paper, “How Formerly Overweight and Obese Individuals Negotiate Disclosure of Their Weight Loss,” is published in the journal Health Communication.

 

________________________

1 Qualitative research is aimed at gaining a deep understanding of a specific organization or event, rather than a surface description of a large sample of a population. It aims to provide an explicit rendering of the structure, order, and broad patterns found among a group of participants. It is also called ethnomethodology or field research. It generates data about human groups in social settings (PPA 696 RESEARCH METHODS).

 

PPA 696 RESEARCH METHODS. (n.d.). Retrieved March 13, 2016, from Qualitative Research Methods: https://web.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa696/696quali.htm

Shipman, M. (2016, February 17). Study Finds Stigma Regarding Weight Loss May Be Overblown. Retrieved March 13, 2016, from NC STATE NEWS: https://news.ncsu.edu/2016/02/romo-weight-loss-2016/

 

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

HIGHER RISK OF DEATH IN OBESE INDIVIDUALS THEN NORMAL-WEIGHT INDIVIDUALS AT ANY FITNESS LEVEL


A few facts about obesity are in order before we digress to our main topic of the dangers of obesity vs. the lack of fitness. These facts are taken right from a page of the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).

Couch

Obesity is common, serious, and costly.

  • More than one-third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese. [Read abstract Journal of American Medicine (JAMA)]
  • Obesity-related conditions include heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer, some of the leading causes of preventable death. [Read guidelines]
  • The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was $147 billion in 2008 U.S. dollars; the medical costs for people who are obese were $1,429 higher than those of normal weight. [Read summary]

27f837b45067bb1a3d1d18b5be97dbf4

Obesity affects some groups more than others.

[Read abstract Journal of American Medicine (JAMA)]

  • Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest age-adjusted rates of obesity (47.8%) followed by Hispanics (42.5%), non-Hispanic whites (32.6%), and non-Hispanic Asians (10.8%)
  • Obesity is higher among middle age adults, 40-59 years old (39.5%) than among younger adults, age 20-39 (30.3%) or adults over 60 or above (35.4%) adults.

14342363-Thinking-hispanic-businesswoman-portrait-with-glasses-isolated-on-white-background-Stock-Photo

Obesity and socioeconomic status

[Read CDC National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) data brief [PDF-1.07MB]

  • Among non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American men, those with higher incomes are more likely to have obesity than those with low income.
  • Higher income women are less likely to have obesity than low-income women are.
  • There is no significant relationship between obesity and education among men. Among women, however, there is a trend—those with college degrees are less likely to have obesity compared with less educated women. (CDC, 2015).

These are sobering, grim statistics indeed, which prepare us in a way for the main topic at hand.

A new study, published in theInternational Journal of Epidemiology, refuted the concept of ‘fat but fit’. The study, in fact, states that the prophylactic effects of fitness against early death are greatly reduced in obese people.

Up to this point, the effects of low aerobic fitness have been documented on older populations. Very few studies have investigated a direct link between aerobic fitness and health in younger populations. This study by academics in Sweden followed 1,317,713 men for a median average of 29 years to examine the association between aerobic fitness and death later in life, as well as how obesity affected these results. The subjects’ aerobic fitness was tested by asking them to cycle until they had to stop due to fatigue. (Oxford University Press, 2015).

Men in the highest fifth or top 20% of aerobic fitness had a 48% lower risk of death from any cause compared with those in the lowest 20%. Stronger associations of observed deaths were related to suicide, alcohol abuse, and narcotics in the lower 20th percentile. Unexpectedly, the authors noted a strong association between low aerobic fitness and deaths related to trauma. Co-author Peter Nordström has no explanation for this finding: “We could only speculate, but genetic factors could have influenced these associations given that aerobic fitness is under strong genetic control.” (Oxford University Press, 2015).

This study also evaluated the misconception that ‘fat but fit is ok’. It’s startling finding revealed men of a normal weight, regardless of their fitness level, were at lower risk of death in comparison to obese individuals in the highest 25% of aerobic fitness. The study went on to say that, the relative benefits of high fitness might still be greater  in obese people. The study ended with one caveat, the effect of a higher fitness profile was reduced with increased obesity; in those with extreme morbid obesity, it was no significant effect at all.

Even with the limitations that this study cohort included only men, and relative early deaths, the amassed data in no way supports the notion that ‘fat but fit’ is a self-limiting condition.

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

 

 

CDC. (2015, September 21). Adult Obesity Facts. Retrieved January 12, 2016, from Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html

Högström, G., Nordström, A., & Nordström, P. (November 10, 2015 ).
Aerobic fitness in late adolescence and the risk of early death: a prospective cohort study of 1.3 million Swedish men
. Retrieved January 12, 2016, from International Journal of Epidemiology: http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/12/20/ije.dyv321

Oxford University Press. (2015, December 20). Obesity more dangerous than lack of fitness, new study claims. Retrieved January 12, 2016, from EurekAlert: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-12/oup-omd121815.php

 

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.