Tag Archives: Obesity

OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY STATISTICS


 

About Overweight and Obesity

This publication describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States.

  • Overweight refers to an excess amount of body weight that may come from muscles, bone, fat, and water.1
  • Obesity refers to an excess amount of body fat.1

Fast Facts

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010 2, 3

  • More than 2 in 3 adults are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • More than 1 in 3 adults are considered to be obese.
  • More than 1 in 20 adults are considered to have extreme obesity.
  • About one-third of children and adolescents ages 6 to 19 are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • More than 1 in 6 children and adolescents ages 6 to 19 are considered to be obese.

Using Body Mass Index (BMI) to Estimate Overweight and Obesity

The BMI is the tool most commonly used to estimate overweight and obesity in children and adults.

BMI of Adults Age 20 and Older
BMI Classifcation
18.5 to 24.9 Normal weight
25 to 29.9 Overweight
30 + Obesity
40 + Extreme obesity

For adults, overweight and obesity ranges are measured by using weight and height to compute the person’s BMI. The BMI is used because, for most people, it correlates with the amount of fat in their bodies. An online tool for gauging the BMIs of adults can be found at:http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/adult_BMI/english_bmi_calculator/bmi_calculator.htmlExternal Link Disclaimer

BMI of Children and Adolescents Ages 2 – 19
BMI Classification
At or above the 85th percentile Overweight or obese
At or above the 95th percentile Obese

Children grow at different rates at different times, so it is not always easy to tell if a child is overweight. BMI charts for children compare their height and weight to other children of their same sex and age. An online tool for guaging the BMIs of children and teens can be found at: http://nccd.cdc.gov/dnpabmi/Calculator.aspxExternal Link Disclaimer

Causes of Overweight and Obesity

Overweight and obesity result from an energy imbalance. The body needs a certain amount of energy (calories) from food to keep up basic life functions. Body weight tends to remain the same when the number of calories eaten equals the number of calories the body uses or “burns.” Over time, when people eat and drink more calories than they burn, the energy balance tips toward weight gain, overweight, and obesity.

Children need to balance their energy, too, but they are also growing and that should be considered as well. Energy balance in children happens when the amount of energy taken in from food or drink and the energy being used by the body support natural growth without promoting excess weight gain.

Many factors can lead to energy imbalance and weight gain. They include genes, eating habits, how and where people live, attitudes and emotions, life habits, and income.1

Treatment of Overweight and Obesity

Overweight and obesity are risk factors for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and other health problems such as those listed below.

Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity
  • type 2 diabetes
  • heart disease
  • high blood pressure
  • nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (excess fat and inflammation in the liver of people who drink little or no alcohol)
  • osteoarthritis (a health problem causing pain, swelling, and stiffness in one or more joints)
  • some types of cancer: breast, colon, endometrial (related to the uterine lining), and kidney
  • stroke

There is no single cause of all overweight and obesity. There is no single approach that can help prevent or treat overweight and obesity. Treatment may include a mix of behavioral treatment, diet, exercise, and sometimes weight-loss drugs. In some cases of extreme obesity, weight-loss surgery may be an option.1


Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

The data presented in this publication are from two surveys conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)2,3 and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).4

Adults Age 20 and Older2
  • More than two-thirds (68.8 percent) of adults are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • More than one-third (35.7 percent) of adults are considered to be obese.
  • More than 1 in 20 (6.3 percent) have extreme obesity.
  • Almost 3 in 4 men (74 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • The prevalence of obesity is similar for both men and women (about 36 percent).
  • About 8 percent of women are considered to have extreme obesity.

Overweight and Obesity among Adults Age 20 and Older, United States, 2009–2010

Estimated Percentage by BMI


 Normal weight or underweight (BMI under 24.9)
 Overweight (BMI of 25 to 29.9)
 Obesity (BMI of 30+)
 Extreme obesity (BMI of 40+)

According to the pie graph, 31.2 percent of adults had BMIs under 24.9 and so were considered normal weight or underweight. Another 33.1 percent had BMIs from 25 to 29.9, and so they were considered overweight. The group with BMIs of 30 or higher—people considered to have obesity—amounted to 35.7 percent. Those considered to have extreme obesity, with BMIs of 40 or higher, amounted to 6.3 percent.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Estimated Percentage by Sex


 Men  Women

According to the bar graph, 74 percent of men had overweight or obesity; 64 percent of women had overweight or obesity. Equal percentages (36) of men and women had obesity. Among men, 4 percent had extreme obesity; the percentage among women was double that of men, at 8 percent.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Different Racial and Ethnic Groups—Adults*
Among Hispanic, black, and white adults age 20 and older: 2

  • Overweight and obesity affect more than 3 in 4 Hispanics (78.8 percent) and blacks (76.7 percent).
  • About 2 in 3 whites (66.7 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese.
  • About half of blacks (49.5 percent), and more than 1 in 3 Hispanics (39.1 percent) and whites (34.3 percent) are considered to be obese.
  • Extreme obesity affects more than 1 in 10 blacks (13.1 percent), and about 1 in 20 whites (5.7 percent) and Hispanics (5 percent).

Rates of obesity among Asian Americans are much lower than among other racial and ethnic groups. The following are general prevalence estimates from the 2010 NHIS for adults age 18 and older in these groups who reported being of one race.4

  • Asian Americans: 11.6 percent
  • American Indians and Alaska Natives: 39.9 percent
  • Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders: 43.5 percent

† This estimate is based on a small number of respondents (n = 284) in the category of Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders; relative standard error is greater than 30 percent and less than or equal to 50 percent.

Overweight and Obesity among Adults Age 20 and Older, United States, 2009–2010

Estimated Percentage by Race/Ethnicity*


 Overweight or Obesity  Obesity  Extreme obesity

According to the bar graph, among white people, 66.7 percent were considered overweight or obese, 34.3 percent were considered obese, and 5.7. percent were considered to have extreme obesity. Among black people, 76.7 percent were considered overweight or obese, 49.5 percent were considered obese, and 13.1 percent were considered to have extreme obesity. Among Hispanic people, 78.8 percent were considered overweight or obese, 39.1 percent were considered obese, and 5 percent were considered to have extreme obesity. Among adults in the United States in all racial categories, 68.8 percent were considered overweight or obese, 35.7 percent were considered obese, and 6.3 percent were considered to have extreme obesity.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Estimated Percentage of Youth with Overweight or Obesity, United States, 2009–2011

Children and Adolescents 3
Young children ages 2 to 5 have a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity than older youth.
Among young people ages 2 to 19:

  • About 31.8 percent are considered to be either overweight or obese, and 16.9 percent are considered to be obese.
  • About 1 in 3 boys (33 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese, compared with 30.4 percent of girls.
  • About 18.6 percent of boys and 15 percent of girls are considered to be obese.

Among children and adolescents ages 6 to 19:

  • Almost 1 in 3 (33.2 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese, and 18.2 percent are considered to be obese.
  • More than 2 in 5 black and Hispanic youth (more than 41 percent) are considered to be overweight or obese.*
  • About 25.7 percent of black, 22.9 percent of Hispanic, and 15.2 percent of white youth are considered to be obese.*

Percentage by Age Group, Ages 2–19


 Overweight or Obesity  Obesity

According to the bar graph, among people ages 2–5, 26.7 percent had overweight or obesity, and 12.1 percent had obesity. Among people ages 6–11, 32.6 percent had overweight or obesity, and 18 percent had obesity. Among people ages 12–19, 33.6 percent had overweight or obesity, and 18.4 percent had obesity.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Percentage by Sex, Ages 2–19


 Overweight or Obesity  Obesity

According to the bar graph, among girls, 30.4 percent had overweight or obesity, and 15 percent had obesity. Among boys, 33 percent had overweight or obesity, and 18.6 percent had obesity. Across youth of both sexes, 31.8 percent had overweight or obesity, and 16.9 percent had obesity.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Percentage by Race/Ethnicity, Ages 6–19*


 Overweight or Obesity  Obesity

According to the bar graph, among white youth, 29 percent had overweight or obesity, and 15.2 percent had obesity. Among black youth, 41.8 percent had overweight or obesity, and 25.7 percent had obesity. Among Hispanic youth, 41.2 percent had overweight or obesity, and 22.9 percent had obesity. Across youth ages 6 to 19 of all races, 33.2 percent had overweight or obesity, and 18.2 percent had obesity.

Source: NHANES, 2009–2010

Trends in Overweight and Obesity among Adults, United States, 1962–2010**

Changes over Time*

  • Since the early 1960s, the prevalence of obesity among adults more than doubled, increasing from 13.4 to 35.7 percent in U.S. adults age 20 and older. 2, 5
  • Obesity prevalence remained mostly stable from 1999 to 2010, but has increased slightly, yet in a statistically significant way, among men overall, as well as among black women and Mexican American women. 2
  • Among children and adolescents, the prevalence of obesity also increased in the 1980s and 1990s but is now mostly stable at about 17 percent. 3

*”Blacks” refers to non-Hispanic blacks, and “whites” refers to non-Hispanic whites.


 Overweight  Obesity  Extreme obesity

According to the graph, as of 1962, about 46 percent of adults in the United States fell into the categories of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity. About 32 percent of adults were overweight, about 13 percent were obese, and about 1 percent had extreme obesity.

Percentages of adults within all of these categories increased gradually until the late 1970s, at which point they began to climb more quickly, leveling off somewhat around 2000. The increase was most dramatic within the obesity category, while the percentage of overweight adults held fairly steady, and the percentage of adults with extreme obesity increased moderately. Around 2000, about 70 percent of adults were considered overweight, obese, or extremely obese. Of this group, 34 percent were considered overweight, about 31 percent were considered obese, and about 5 percent were considered to have extreme obesity.

By 2010, the percentage of adults considered overweight, obese, or extremely obese had climbed to about 75. About 33 percent were considered overweight, about 36 percent were considered obese, and about 6 percent were considered extremely obesese.

Source: Ogden & Carroll, 2010; Flegal et al., 2012

**Data for 1960–1980 are for adults ages 20 to 74; data for 1988–2010 are for adults age 20 and older


Physical Activity Statistics

Adults

Research Findings

  • Research suggests that staying active may lower a person’s chance of getting heart disease, stroke, some cancers, type 2 diabetes, and other conditions.
  • Researchers believe that some physical activity is better than none. Extra health benefits can be gained by increasing how often and intensely one exercises and how long each session lasts.

Government guidelines recommend that healthy adults take part in aerobic activity of moderate intensity for at least 150 minutes a week or vigorous intensity for 75 minutes a week.6 Aerobic activity uses large muscles such as the legs and back and makes the heart beat faster. In addition, the guidelines recommend that people do activities that strengthen muscles (such as weight training or push-ups) at least twice a week.

Some studies measure physical activity by people’s self-report of what they do. Other studies use a tool that records movement as it occurs. Researchers consider the studies using tools to be more accurate. A study conducted in 2003–2004 that used this type of tool to measure physical activity found that only about 3 to 5 percent of adults meet these recommendations.7

Children and Adolescent

The physical activity guidelines also recommend that children and youth get at least 60 minutes of physical activity daily.

Research Findings

Findings from a study 7 conducted in 2003–2004 that measured physical activity using a tool that records movement suggest the following:

  • In the age group of 6 to 11, almost half of boys (49 percent) and about a third of girls (35 percent) get the recommended amount of physical activity.
  • Physical activity declines with age. While 42 percent of children ages 6 to 11 get 60 minutes a day of physical activity, only about 8 percent of adolescents ages 12 to 15 reach this goal.

At all ages, girls have lower levels of physical activity than boys.

Children and Adolescents Ages 6–19 Getting at Least 60 Minutes per Day of Physical Activity, United States, 2003–2004

 All      Boys      Girls

The bar graph presents percentages for different age ranges, and it shows percentages of boys, girls, and all children within the ranges doing 60 minutes or more of daily physical activity. The leftmost part of the graph shows data on children ages 6–11. For children in that age range, 42 percent were getting at least 60 minutes of physical activity per day. Among boys, 48.9 percent were getting 60 minutes or more of daily physical activity, and among girls, the proportion was 34.7 percent. The middle of the graph shows data on youth ages 12–15. For youth within this age range, 8 percent were getting at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day. Among boys, the percentage was 11.9, and among girls, the percentage was 3.4. The right part of the graph shows percentages for youth ages 16–19. For youth within this age range, 7.6 percent were getting at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day. Among boys, 10 percent were doing 60 minutes or more of daily physical activity, and among girls, 5.4 percent were doing 60 minutes or more of physical activity each day. In general, many more young children than older ones were doing at least 60 minutes of physical activity daily.

Source: Troiano et al., 2008


References

  1. National Institutes of Health. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: The evidence report. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; September 1998. NIH Publication No. 98–4083. Available online:http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/guidelines/archive/clinical-guidelines-obesity-adults-evidence-reportExternal NIH Link
  2. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2012; 307(5):491–97. Available online:http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1104933External Link Disclaimer
  3. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999–2010. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2012; 307(5):483–90. Available online:http://jama.jamanetwork.com/Mobile/article.aspx?articleid=1104932External Link Disclaimer
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Vital and Health Statistics 10(252); 2012. Available online:http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_252.pdf [PDF – 3.8 Mb]External Link Disclaimer
  5. Ogden CL, Carroll MD. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960–1962 through 2007–2008. NCHS Health E-Stat. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2010. Available online:http://www.cdc.gov/NCHS/data/hestat/obesity_adult_07_08/obesity_adult_07_08.pdf [PDF – 202.5 Kb]External Link Disclaimer
  6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. ODPHP Publication No. U0036. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available online: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/External Link Disclaimer
  7. Troiano RP, Berrigan D, Dodd KW, Mâsse LC, Tilert T, McDowell M. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2008;40(1):181–188. Available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18091006External NIH Link

[Top]

Clinical Trials

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research into many diseases and conditions.

What are clinical trials, and are they right for you?
Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for youExternal NIH Link.

What clinical trials are open?
Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.govExternal Link Disclaimer.


Resources

Additional Reading from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Adults: United States, 2005–2008 
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db50.htmExternal Link Disclaimer

Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Children and Adolescents: United States, 2005–2008
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db51.htmExternal Link Disclaimer

Prevalence of Obesity in the United States, 2009–2010
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db82.htmExternal Link Disclaimer



This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

The NIDDK would like to thank:
Cheryl Fryar, M.S.P.H., and Cynthia Ogden, Ph.D., M.R.P., both of the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for reviewing this fact sheet.

This information is not copyrighted. The NIDDK encourages people to share this content freely.



INCONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE, THE BENEFITS OF A PALEO DIET IN MODERATING TYPE 2 DIABETES


One of the tenants of the noted Paleolithic diet concentrates its aims on avoiding refined sugars and processed food, but scientific evidence from research about any beneficial effect for people living with type 2 diabetes is unresolved at this point, according to a Perspective published online by the Medical Journal of Australia.

download
Associate Professor Sofianos Andrikopoulos from the University of Melbourne

Associate Professor Sofianos Andrikopoulos from the University of Melbourne noted that in its most basic form, the Paleo diet’s concentration on fresh foods seems compatible with dietary guidelines worldwide.

“However, what constitutes a Paleolithic diet is often skewed by individual interpretation or bias. This lack of a standard definition further complicates research evidence for or against this dietary approach and is often supported by individual self-reported benefits on health and wellbeing in popular social media channels.” Notwithstanding the enthusiasm shown for the Paleo diet, there is the dearth of adequate scientific trials investigating the effect of the diet on people with diabetes.

However, a Swedish study discovered that the Paleo diet achieved a lower value of body mass index and glycated hemoglobin levels (The A1C test is a blood test that provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, LEM1103abnormal286over the past 3 months. The A1C test is sometimes called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, or glycohemoglobin test.) The comparison was made against a diabetes diet for obese patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Associate Professor Andrikopoulos concluded that the study was not of enough breath to determine any long-term benefit.

“These small and short-term studies tend to indicate some benefit but do not convincingly show that a Paleolithic diet is effective for weight loss and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes,” he wrote.

Study on a healthy, research group of average weight put on a Paleo diet for 10 days showed a static response to fasting plasma glucose (insulin) levels. It did find reduced plasma lipid levels and blood pressure compared with the usual baseline diet.

MetaSynd_flatAnother 2-week study on obese patients with metabolic syndrome (a cluster of biochemical and physiological abnormalities associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes) found no effect on glucose tolerance (how well your body’s cells are able to absorb glucose or sugar). The study did reveal that the group had reduced blood pressure and plasma lipid levels, which was associated with a small decrease in weight.

In summation, Associate Professor Andrikopoulos stated; “given that even very short deficits in energy balance can improve metabolic parameters, it is difficult to make strong conclusions about the long-term benefits of the Paleolithic diet in type 2 diabetes (or any other condition), because of the short duration of the interventions (less than 12 weeks), the lack of a proper control group in some instances, and the small sample size (less than 20 individuals) of the above studies”.

Article: The Paleo diet and diabetes, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Medical Journal of Australia, doi: 10.5694/mja16.00347, published 8 August 2016.

Source: Australian Medical Association (AMA)

 

 

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Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

DIET AND THE CONVERSION OF WHITE FAT INTO OBESITY-FIGHTING BEIGE FAT


beige-fat-infographic
White Fat, Beige Fat, Brown Fat. Click to enlarge

At some point, fellow travelers have probably heard the term white, beige, and brown fat brought up in the topic of conversation regarding the fight against obesity. The most important single idea in the field of metabolic disease is the concept of energy balance. This means that, with the rare exception of malabsorption of nutrients, an animal cannot gain or lose weight unless there is an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure. When energy intake chronically exceeds energy expenditure, weight gain, and obesity result. This excess weight is stored in adipose tissue, which consists of fat cells, or adipocytes, which have an incredible capacity for storing surplus energy in the form of lipid. This tissue is not just a passive storage depot, but also an endocrine organ, secreting molecules like leptin that can regulate appetite and whole-body metabolism. In addition to these well-described energy-storing fat cells, adipocytes also exist that are highly effective at transforming chemical energy into heat. Brown adipocytes, which get their name from their high number of iron-containing mitochondria, are specialized to dissipate energy in the form of heat, a process called nonshivering thermogenesis. The thermogenic gene program of classical brown and beige fat cells (those brown cells that can emerge in white fat depots under certain conditions) can increase whole-body energy expenditure and therefore can protect against obesity and diabetes. This role of brown (and now beige) adipose cells in increasing whole-body metabolic rates has driven much of the interest in these cell types (Wu, Cohen, & Spiegelman, 2013).

Well, scientists at Washington State University have shown that berries, grapes, and other fruits convert excess white fat into calorie-burning beige fat, providing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

resveratrolScientists used mice in the study; the mice were fed a high-fat diet. The thin mice receiving resveratrol in amounts equal to 12 ounces of fruit per day for humans put on 40% less weight than control mice. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, one type antioxidant found in most fruits.

is_141201_red_wine_grapes_resveratrol_800x600Prior research had intimated that resveratrol aids in the prevention of obesity but the mechanism of action was unclear. Much of the research, primarily with red wine, used copious concentrations of resveratrol, a much higher concentration than an individual could consume in a normal diet.

Professor Min Du
Professor Min Du

Min Du, a professor of animal sciences at WSU, and visiting colleague, scientist Songbo Wang, made evident that mice fed 0.1% resveratrol were able to change their excess white fat into the active, energy-burning beige fat.

 

“Polyphenols in fruit, including resveratrol, increase gene expression that enhances the oxidation of dietary fats so the body won’t be overloaded,” said Du. “They convert white fat into beige fat that burns lipids¹ off as heat – helping to keep the body in balance and prevent obesity and metabolic dysfunction.”

The scientists also demonstrated that an enzyme called AMPK², which regulates the body’s energy metabolism, promotes this transition of white fat into beige fat.

Resveratrol has been lauded as a natural way to slow aging and fight cancer, heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, obesity, and diabetes. However, many of the claims are still under debate (Phillips, 2015).

Du said resveratrol is only one of the polyphenolic compounds found in fruit that provides beneficial health effects.

“We are using resveratrol as a representative for all of the polyphenols,” he said.
“We are still using it as a pure compound to be consistent with the study that came out 20 years ago in the medical journal, The Lancet, showing that resveratrol in wine has beneficial effects.

“In reality, it’s the total polyphenolic content that is more important,” he said. “We think you can increase your total intake of polyphenol compounds by directly increasing fruit consumption.”

11264613_1425607281082510_56633673_nDu said those compounds are found in all fruits but are especially rich in blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, grapes, and apples. Twelve ounces is about two or three servings per day.

Wines like merlot or cabernet sauvignon, in contrast, contain only a fraction of resveratrol and other phenolic compounds found in grapes, he said.

“Many of the beneficial polyphenols are insoluble and get filtered out during the wine production process,” he said.

For consumers who want to add fiber and these bioactive compounds to their diet, it’s much better to eat the whole fruit, he said.

fatty acid greenResearchers had always assumed there were only two types of fat, said Du – white fat where lipids are stored as energy and brown fat that burns lipids to produce heat.

Several years ago, scientists discovered beige fat, which is in between white and brown fat. Du said beige fat is generated from white fat in a process called “browning.”

“Resveratrol can enhance this conversion of white fat to beige fat and, when you have high rates of browning, it can partially prevent obesity,” he said.

In the study, adult female mice were fed a high-fat diet. Those supplemented with resveratrol were 40 percent less likely to develop diet-induced obesity compared to control mice that gained weight (Phillips, 2015).

Du said white fat is protective when it’s healthy. But too much leads to imbalance and disease.

“The current theory is that when we eat excessively, the extra lipids are stored in white fat. With obesity, the fat cells enlarge to a point where they’re saturated and can’t uptake more lipids,” he said. “As the fat cells become overloaded and die, they release toxins and cause inflammation leading to health problems like insulin resistance and diabetes.

“Polyphenols like resveratrol are good as they enhance the oxidation of fat so it won’t be overloaded. The excess is burned off as heat,” he said.

The study was recently published in the International Journal of Obesity. It was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and an Emerging Research Issues Internal Competitive Grant from the WSU College of Agriculture, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences. None of the funders had a role in the interpretation of the results.


[1] Lipids are a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others.

Lipid – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipid

[2] 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis. It consists of three proteins (subunits) that together make a functional enzyme, conserved from yeast to humans.

AMP-activated protein kinase – Wikipedia, the free …

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AMP-activated_protein_kinase


 

Phillips, R. (2015, June 18). WSU scientists turn white fat into obesity-fighting beige fat. Retrieved April 28, 2016, from WSU NEWS: https://news.wsu.edu/2015/06/18/wsu-scientists-turn-white-fat-into-obesity-fighting-beige-fat/

 

Wu, J., Cohen, P., & Spiegelman, B. (2013, February 1). Adaptive thermogenesis in adipocytes: Is beige the new brown? doi:10.1101/gad.211649.112

 

 

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

 

 

 

 

THE WEIGHT OF REJECTION LOOMS LARGE FOR HEAVIER INDIVIDUALS.


 

keep-calm-and-come-speed-datingImagine oneself in this scenario. You are in a speed dating situation with only 5 minutes to find favor with, or not, the individual on the opposite side of the table from you. It can be unnerving enough for the most confident of individuals. For heavier women the effects are even worse. A study shows that reservations about rejection and devaluation in reference to one’s weight can lead down the path to the deleterious health consequences.

major-brenda_150x200
Dr. Brenda Major is a Distinguished Professor in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
blodorn_150x200
Dr. Alison Blodorn is a post-doctoral research associate working with Dr. Brenda Major in the Self & Social Identity Lab at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

Two UC Santa Barbara psychologists set out to examine whether and how the anticipation of rejection — versus the actual experience of it — affects an individual’s emotional well-being. Dr. Brenda Major is a Distinguished Professor in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at the University of California, Santa Barbara and Brenda Major devised a study that measured the effects of anticipated rejection caused by weight-stigmatizing situations — like dating. The results, they discovered, depended on participants’ weight and gender. The findings appear in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology (Cohen, 2016).

“We experimentally tested whether the mere anticipation of rejection among heavier individuals is enough to lead to downstream negative psychological effects such as decreased self-esteem or feelings of self-consciousness,” explained Blodorn, a postdoctoral research associate in the Self & Social Identity Lab in UCSB’s Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences.

The researchers enlisted 160 men and women of differing body weights, aged 18 to 29, who identified themselves as heterosexual. Each individual in the study was asked to give a 5-minute talk detailing why he or she would make a viable dating partner. They were told a comely member of the opposite sex would evaluate the speech.

Half of the participants in the study were told that the evaluator would see a video recording of their speeches, so their weight would be self-evident. For the other half of the study group, evaluators would only hear the audio portion of the speeches so weight was not a factor in the decision-making process.

speed-dating-pegsTo assess anticipated rejection, immediately before giving their speeches participants were asked to rate, how likely they thought their evaluators would be to accept them or to reject them. After their speeches were recorded, participants completed a variety of tests to measure levels of self-esteem, feelings of self-consciousness such as shame and embarrassment, and stress emotions like anxiety and discomfort. Participants’ height and weight were also measured in order to calculate their body mass index (BMI) (Cohen, 2016). “Heavier women — or those with a higher BMI — who thought their weight would be seen expected to be rejected by their evaluator,” Blodorn explained. “This anticipated rejection led to lower self-esteem, greater feelings of self-consciousness and greater stress.”

She noted that the same conditions that were detrimental to heavier women had the opposite effect for thinner women who saw their weight as an asset. “Thinner women expected to be accepted and this led to increased feelings of positive self-esteem, decreased self-consciousness and less stress,” Blodorn said. “It’s not too surprising, given that thinness and beauty are so intertwined in our society.”

paper-bag-speed-datingThe results differed for men. “Interestingly, we didn’t see any of the same negative effects for heavier men,” Blodorn said. “They didn’t expect to be rejected by an attractive female who was going to rate their dating potential when their weight was fully seen. It’s possible that these findings are limited to the dating domain, and more research needs to be done before we could say heavier men are not affected by weight stigma.”

The study implies, relative to heavy women, that direct confrontations with negative weight based treatment are not necessary for weight stigma to have adverse effects.

“Even in the absence of actual experiences with negative weight-based treatment, anticipated rejection can lead to negative psychological health,” Blodorn said. “Given that weight bias is so pervasive in our society, these findings have huge implications for the psychological well-being of heavier women.”

“It seems inevitable that in a slew of different situations — such as going to the grocery store or gym — they are going to be worried about being rejected or evaluated unfavorably due to their weight,” she concluded. “And this can lead to long-term decreases in well-being.”

 

 

Cohen, J. (2016, March 21). The Weight of Rejection. Retrieved March 24, 2016, from The UC Santa Barbara Current: http://www.news.ucsb.edu/2016/016570/weight-rejection

A 5% WEIGHT-LOSS MAKES A BIG DIFFERENCE IN YOUR HEALTH PROFILE.


Medical_complications_of_obesity
Medical complications of obesity. Click to enlarge

Greater than one in three Americans are obese. Obesity is a looming risk factor for a variety of diseases, two diseases being type 2 diabetes and heart disease. These health problems stem from a wide range of underlying medical abnormalities that affect the liver, pancreas, muscle, fat, and other tissues.

Current treatment guidelines suggest a 5% to 10% weight reduction in people that are overweight or obese to bring about any noticeable improvements in health. Team leader, Dr. Samuel Klein, at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and his team studied the metabolic benefits of a 5% weight-loss in obese subjects. NIH’s National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), and other NIH constituents funded this study.

downloadThe scientists randomly assigned 40 sedentary people with obesity to maintain their body weight or to go on a diet to lose 5% of their body weight, followed by targets of 10% and 15%. Participants averaged 44 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) of 38 (average weight of about 235 pounds). The participants did not smoke or have diabetes. The findings appeared online on February 22, 2016, in Cell Metabolism (Torgan, 2016).

Subjects in the weight-loss group ate a low-calorie diet: 50%-55% of the energy supplied was in the form of carbohydrate, 30% as fat, and 15%-20% as protein. Participants were provided with weekly diets and behavioral education sessions.

download (1)Nineteen individuals reached the initial target range of 5% weight-loss, an average of 12 pounds, after about 3 ½ months. The researchers discovered that this crew had greatly decreased body fat, which included the abdominal fat and fat in the liver. Moreover, they had decreased blood plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin, which are the telltale risk factors for heart disease and diabetes. These individuals showed an improved function of insulin-secreting beta cells found in the pancreas, as well as increased sensitivity of fat, liver, and muscle tissue to insulin.

Biomarkers of inflammation are increased in people with obesity. However, the scientists found no changes in systemic or fat tissue biomarkers of inflammation with subjects having a 5% weight-loss.

fast-weight-loss-tips-for-menNine individuals reached the succeeding targets having reached an approximate weight loss of 11% in about seven months and a 16% weight-loss at about 10 months. The decreases in fat mass, blood plasma insulin, leptin, and triglyceride concentrations continued in concert with the weight-loss. Continued improvements in beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in muscle was seen in these individuals. Insulin sensitivity in the liver and fat tissue was not significant with weight-loss greater than 5%.

“Our findings demonstrate that you get the biggest bang for your buck with 5% weight loss,” Klein says. “If you weigh 200 pounds, you will be doing yourself a favor if you can lose 10 pounds and keep it off. You don’t have to lose 50 pounds to get important health benefits.”

This study did not ascertain whether these effects are maintained for further periods. More research is needed to determine if individuals with diabetes have the same types and patterns of metabolic adjustment following increasing weight-loss as in this study.

 

 

Torgan, C. (2016, March 3). Benefits of moderate weight loss in people with obesity. Retrieved March 17, 2016, from NIH RESEARCH MATTERS: http://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/benefits-moderate-weight-loss-people-obesity

Effects of Moderate and Subsequent Progressive Weight Loss on Metabolic Function and Adipose Tissue Biology in Humans with Obesity. Magkos F, Fraterrigo G, Yoshino J, Luecking C, Kirbach K, Kelly SC, de Las Fuentes L, He S, Okunade AL, Patterson BW, Klein S. Cell Metab. 2016 Feb 22. pii: S1550-4131(16)30053-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2016.02.005. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 26916363.

 

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

COUPLES’ LIFESTYLE CHOICES EFFECT OBESITY RISK!


 

download (2)The lifestyle an individual share with their better half has a greater influence on one’s chances of becoming obese than one’s upbringing, research suggests.

By the time individuals hit their 40s, choices made by cohabiting couples, including those linked to diet and exercise, have a greater effect than the lifestyle each shared with brothers, sisters, and parents growing up.

Researchers go on to say the study will further help scientists understand ties between obesity, genetics, and lifestyle habits.

Its findings bolster the message; lifestyle changes in adulthood can have a significant effect tackling obesity, regardless of a person’s genetic makeup.

images (2)The research team reviewed data provided by 20,000 people from Scottish families. They compared the individual’s family genetics and home environment in childhood and adulthood and related these to measures tied to health and obesity.

journal.pgen.1005804.g003The research encompassed 16 measures including, waist to hip ratio, blood pressure, body fat content and body mass index.

The information originally collated as part of the generation Scotland project is a national resource of health data and helps researchers to investigate you know who links to health conditions.

Professor Chris Haley of the medical research council’s human genetics unit at the University of Edinburgh led this research study published in the journal PL OS Genetics.

Professor Haley stated; “Although genetics accounts for a significant proportion of the variation between people, our study has shown at the environment you share with your partner in adulthood also influences whether you become obese and this is more important than your upbringing. The findings also show that even people who come from families with a history of obesity can reduce their risk by changing their lifestyle habits.”

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

 

 

Pedigree- and SNP-Associated Genetics and Recent Environment are the Major Contributors to Anthropometric and Cardiometabolic Trait Variation. Charley Xia, Carmen Amador, Jennifer Huffman, Holly Trochet, Archie Campbell, David Porteous, Generation Scotland, Nicholas D. Hastie, Caroline Hayward, Veronique Vitart, Pau Navarro, Chris S. Haley. PLOS Genetics. DOI.10.1371/journal.pgen.1005804. Published online February 2, 2016.

Source: University of Edinburgh

Additional source: EurekAlert!, the online, global news service operated by AAAS, the science society

 

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HIGHER RISK OF DEATH IN OBESE INDIVIDUALS THEN NORMAL-WEIGHT INDIVIDUALS AT ANY FITNESS LEVEL


A few facts about obesity are in order before we digress to our main topic of the dangers of obesity vs. the lack of fitness. These facts are taken right from a page of the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).

Couch

Obesity is common, serious, and costly.

  • More than one-third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese. [Read abstract Journal of American Medicine (JAMA)]
  • Obesity-related conditions include heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer, some of the leading causes of preventable death. [Read guidelines]
  • The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was $147 billion in 2008 U.S. dollars; the medical costs for people who are obese were $1,429 higher than those of normal weight. [Read summary]

27f837b45067bb1a3d1d18b5be97dbf4

Obesity affects some groups more than others.

[Read abstract Journal of American Medicine (JAMA)]

  • Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest age-adjusted rates of obesity (47.8%) followed by Hispanics (42.5%), non-Hispanic whites (32.6%), and non-Hispanic Asians (10.8%)
  • Obesity is higher among middle age adults, 40-59 years old (39.5%) than among younger adults, age 20-39 (30.3%) or adults over 60 or above (35.4%) adults.

14342363-Thinking-hispanic-businesswoman-portrait-with-glasses-isolated-on-white-background-Stock-Photo

Obesity and socioeconomic status

[Read CDC National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) data brief [PDF-1.07MB]

  • Among non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American men, those with higher incomes are more likely to have obesity than those with low income.
  • Higher income women are less likely to have obesity than low-income women are.
  • There is no significant relationship between obesity and education among men. Among women, however, there is a trend—those with college degrees are less likely to have obesity compared with less educated women. (CDC, 2015).

These are sobering, grim statistics indeed, which prepare us in a way for the main topic at hand.

A new study, published in theInternational Journal of Epidemiology, refuted the concept of ‘fat but fit’. The study, in fact, states that the prophylactic effects of fitness against early death are greatly reduced in obese people.

Up to this point, the effects of low aerobic fitness have been documented on older populations. Very few studies have investigated a direct link between aerobic fitness and health in younger populations. This study by academics in Sweden followed 1,317,713 men for a median average of 29 years to examine the association between aerobic fitness and death later in life, as well as how obesity affected these results. The subjects’ aerobic fitness was tested by asking them to cycle until they had to stop due to fatigue. (Oxford University Press, 2015).

Men in the highest fifth or top 20% of aerobic fitness had a 48% lower risk of death from any cause compared with those in the lowest 20%. Stronger associations of observed deaths were related to suicide, alcohol abuse, and narcotics in the lower 20th percentile. Unexpectedly, the authors noted a strong association between low aerobic fitness and deaths related to trauma. Co-author Peter Nordström has no explanation for this finding: “We could only speculate, but genetic factors could have influenced these associations given that aerobic fitness is under strong genetic control.” (Oxford University Press, 2015).

This study also evaluated the misconception that ‘fat but fit is ok’. It’s startling finding revealed men of a normal weight, regardless of their fitness level, were at lower risk of death in comparison to obese individuals in the highest 25% of aerobic fitness. The study went on to say that, the relative benefits of high fitness might still be greater  in obese people. The study ended with one caveat, the effect of a higher fitness profile was reduced with increased obesity; in those with extreme morbid obesity, it was no significant effect at all.

Even with the limitations that this study cohort included only men, and relative early deaths, the amassed data in no way supports the notion that ‘fat but fit’ is a self-limiting condition.

Dear readers, if you have read this far, the Captain would be most heartened if you would rate this and future articles and/or leave a comment at the top of the blog posts whether positive or negative. In this way, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” may better serve you and our entire readership.

 

 

CDC. (2015, September 21). Adult Obesity Facts. Retrieved January 12, 2016, from Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html

Högström, G., Nordström, A., & Nordström, P. (November 10, 2015 ).
Aerobic fitness in late adolescence and the risk of early death: a prospective cohort study of 1.3 million Swedish men
. Retrieved January 12, 2016, from International Journal of Epidemiology: http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/12/20/ije.dyv321

Oxford University Press. (2015, December 20). Obesity more dangerous than lack of fitness, new study claims. Retrieved January 12, 2016, from EurekAlert: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-12/oup-omd121815.php

 

 

Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon
Captain Hank Quinlan, Owner, and Publisher, Chief Curmudgeon with Sam Borsalino, Assistant Publisher

Dear Hail-Fellows well met, “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is written and edited by your favorite curmudgeons Captain Hank Quinlan and

Flatfoot Willie, Corespondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers
Flatfoot Willie, Correspondent at Large with fellow Staff Writers

Staff (monkeys in the back room). We offer an ongoing tirade to support or offend anyone of any large dimension, cultural background, religious affiliation, or color of skin. This gazette rails against an eclectic mix of circus ring ne’er do wells, big ring fatty and fatso whiners, congenital idiots, the usual motley assortment of the profoundly dumbfounded, and a favorite of intelligent men everywhere, the

May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity .
May the Most Venerable H. L. Mencken bless our unworthy but earnest attempts at tongue in cheek jocularity.

“Great Booboisie.” Nor shall we ignore the wide assortment of shirkers, layabouts, and slugabeds.

Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.
Latest office staff confab at Fat Bastard HQ.

All this and more always keeping our major focus on “Why so fat?”  Enough said? We at “The Fat Bastard Gazette” think so. If you like what you read, and you know whom you are, in this yellow blog, tell your friends. We would be elated with an ever-wider readership. We remain cordially yours, Captain Hank Quinlan and the Monkeys in the back room

“The Fat Bastard Gazette” does not purport to offer any definitive medical or pharmaceutical advice whatsoever in any explicit or implied manner. Always consult a qualified physician in all medical or pharmaceutical matters. “The Fat Bastard Gazette” is only the opinion of informed nonprofessionals for the general edification and entertainment of the greater public. 

 No similarities to any existing names or characters are expressed or implied. We reserve the right to offend or support anybody, anything, or any sacred totem across the globe.