Horribile dictu (horrible to relate), men are more narcissistic than women are. How long has this fact been hidden under the bushel basket. Men are masters of the race therefore; women should be subservient to men. Men may bend the rules of decorum in any manner and at any time they see fit to their purpose. Men must remain dominant in omnibus rebus (in all affairs). The first article below reads like an article out of the 1950s. What is new in women’s struggle with men’s entitlement? Just read the bible as an example of women made or told to be subservient to men. It took this long for the wonks in ivory towers to come to any definitive consensus! The Captain and staff are flummoxed why this article ever made it to press.
The second article deals with the Mediterranean diet study and of course, the Mediterranean diet wins. “Among the study’s participants, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was more protective than physical activity.” However, take this with the proverbial grain of salt, flabby muscles especially the heart muscle does the body no good either. Exercise must still be included with diets. It is obvious a healthful diet will promote good cardiovascular health related to cleaner arterial walls especially around the smaller coronary arteries. However, everything we eat has calories and these calories must be burned through activity. This cannot be stressed and enough.
Men are more narcissistic because ‘women often receive harsh criticism for being aggressive or authoritative’, study shows
- The 31-year University at Buffalo study looked at three aspects of narcissism and analyzed data from more than 475,000 people
- Aspect of narcissism with the biggest gender gap was entitlement
- Narcissism can emerge out of gender expectations, researchers say
- Gender roles create pressure that makes women suppress displays of narcissistic behavior, researchers say
Men tend to be more narcissistic than women and as a result are more likely to exploit others, a study said Thursday after analyzing three decades of data from more than 475,000 people.
The findings were consistent across multiple age groups and generations, said the University at Buffalo School of Management, pointing out that narcissism has good and bad points.
The researchers examined more than 355 journal articles, dissertations, manuscripts and technical manuals, and studied gender differences in the three aspects of narcissism: leadership/authority, grandiose/exhibitionism and entitlement.
University at Buffalo researchers found looked at three aspects of narcissism: leadership/authority, grandiose/exhibitionism and entitlement. The widest gap between genders was in entitlement
Over the course of their 31-year study they found the widest gap in entitlement, suggesting that men are more likely than women to exploit others and feel entitled to certain privileges.
‘Narcissism is associated with various interpersonal dysfunctions, including an inability to maintain healthy long-term relationships, unethical behavior and aggression,’ said lead author Emily Grijalva, assistant professor of organization and human resources in the UB School of Management.
‘At the same time, narcissism is shown to boost self-esteem, emotional stability and the tendency to emerge as a leader,’ she added.
The study looked at unattractive qualities, including manipulative, self-absorption, aggression and arrogance, according to the Washington Post.
It also looked at how people responded to statements including ‘I know that I am good because everyone keeps telling me so’.
The study did note, however, that neither gender has gotten more narcissistic over time.
Narcissism can emerge out of gender stereotypes and expectations, according to a University at Buffalo news release.
‘Individuals tend to observe and learn gender roles from a young age, and may face backlash for deviating from society’s expectations,’ Grijalva says. ‘In particular, women often receive harsh criticism for being aggressive or authoritative, which creates pressure for women, more so than for men, to suppress displays of narcissistic behavior.’
Diet Can Cut Heart Risk by Almost Half
Adults who closely followed the Mediterranean diet were 47 percent less likely to develop heart disease over a 10-year period compared to similar adults who did not closely follow the diet, according to a study to be presented at the American College of Cardiology‘s 64th Annual Scientific Session in San Diego.Among the study’s participants, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was more protective than physical activity. The study, conducted in Greece, bolsters evidence from earlier studies pointing to the diet’s health benefits and is the first to track 10-year heart disease risk in a general population. Most previous studies have focused on middle-aged people.
“Our study shows that the Mediterranean diet is a beneficial intervention for all types of people — in both genders, in all age groups, and in both healthy people and those with health conditions,” said Ekavi Georgousopoulou, a Ph.D. candidate at Harokopio Univ. in Athens, Greece, who conducted the study along with Demosthenes Panagiotakos, professor at Harokopio Univ. “It also reveals that the Mediterranean diet has direct benefits for heart health, in addition to its indirect benefits in managing diabetes, hypertension and inflammation.”
The study is based on data from a representative sample of more than 2,500 Greek adults, ages 18 to 89, who provided researchers with their health information each year from 2001 to 2012. Participants also completed in-depth surveys about their medical records, lifestyle and dietary habits at the start of the study, after five years and after 10 years.
Overall, nearly 20 percent of the men and 12 percent of the women who participated in the study developed or died from heart disease, a suite of conditions that includes stroke, coronary heart disease caused by the buildup of plaque in the heart’s arteries, acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack, and other diseases. Other studies have shown Greeks and Americans have similar rates of heart disease and its risk factors.
The researchers scored participants’ diets on a scale from one to 55 based on their self-reported frequency and level of intake for 11 food groups. Those who scored in the top-third in terms of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, indicating they closely followed the diet, were 47 percent less likely to develop heart disease over the 10-year follow-up period as compared to participants who scored in the bottom-third, indicating they did not closely follow the diet. Each one-point increase in the dietary score was associated with a 3 percent drop in heart disease risk.
This difference was independent of other heart disease risk factors including age, gender, family history, education level, body mass index, smoking habits, hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol, all of which the researchers adjusted for in their analysis.
The analysis also confirmed results of previous studies indicating that male gender, older age, diabetes and high C-reactive protein levels, a measure of inflammation, are associated with an increased risk for heart disease.
While there is no set Mediterranean diet, it commonly emphasizes fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts, fish, olive oil and even a glass of red wine. Earlier research has shown that following the traditional Mediterranean diet is linked to weight loss, reduced risk of diabetes, lower blood pressure and lower blood cholesterol levels, in addition to reduced risk of heart disease.
“Because the Mediterranean diet is based on food groups that are quite common or easy to find, people around the world could easily adopt this dietary pattern and help protect themselves against heart disease with very little cost,” Georgousopoulou said.
Among study participants, women tended to follow the Mediterranean diet more closely than did men. Despite the fact that Greece is the cradle of the Mediterranean diet, urbanization has led many Greeks to adopt a more Western diet over the past four decades, he said.
The study was limited to participants living in and around Athens, Greece, so the sample does not necessarily reflect the health conditions or dietary patterns of people in more rural areas or the rest of the world. However, previous studies have also linked the Mediterranean diet with reduced cardiovascular risks, including the Nurses’ Health Study, which included nearly 75,000 American nurses who were tracked over a 30-year period. Additional studies in other adult populations would further advance understanding of the diet’s influence on heart disease risk.
The study, “Adherence to Mediterranean is the Most Important Protector Against the Development of Fatal and Non-Fatal Cardiovascular Event: 10-Year Follow-up (2002-12) Of the Attica Study,” will be presented on March 15.
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